Florida Institute of Oceanography

Saint Petersburg, FL, United States

Florida Institute of Oceanography

Saint Petersburg, FL, United States
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Lenes J.M.,University of South Florida | Prospero J.M.,University of Miami | Landing W.M.,Florida State University | Virmani J.I.,Florida Institute of Oceanography | Walsh J.J.,University of South Florida
Marine Chemistry | Year: 2012

The regional deposition of mineral dust aerosols was simulated from May-October 1999 using a simple two-dimensional model developed specifically to estimate high-resolution (kilometer scale) iron fertilization within the eastern Gulf of Mexico. In this model, daily atmospheric dust concentrations were assumed to be homogeneous over the model domain, where measurements at Miami served as the forcing function. Spatial deposition was driven by spatial variation in precipitation, i.e. wet deposition processes. A daily accumulation index (DAI) was formulated in order to provide high-resolution rainfall rates over time and space. The model calculated that 0.9-2.2gdustm -2 (28-78mgFem -2) was deposited over the model domain during the 6-month simulation. Wet deposition was responsible for 82-93% of total dust deposition. The highest concentrations of dust (iron) were deposited along the coast of west central Florida between 26° and 29°N latitude (Tampa Bay to Charlotte Harbor). This region saw the largest amount of precipitation during periods of elevated mineral dust, with 44-64% of total annual deposition occurring during 5 wet deposition events. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kirkpatrick G.J.,Mote Marine Laboratory | Millie D.F.,Florida Institute of Oceanography | Moline M.A.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Lohrenz S.E.,University of Southern Mississippi | Schofield O.M.,Rutgers University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

Optical Phytoplankton Discriminator (OPD, a.k.a. BreveBuster) determines colored dissolved organic material (CDOM) absorption spectra and particulate light absorbance spectra. The CDOM absorption spectra and correlation coefficients (referred to as 'similarity indexes') between the particulate absorbance spectra and known phytoplankton classes are available in real-time. Post-deployment processing calculates the best fit of multiple absorbance spectra from known phytoplankton taxonomic classes. Through this process the OPD provides an estimate of the phytoplankton community chlorophyll distribution among the classes included in the fit process. The major components of the OPD include: a liquid-waveguide capillary cell (LWCC), a fiber-optic spectrometer, a tungsten-deuterium fiber-optic light and a 0.2 micrometer pore cross-flow filter. In-water operation of the OPD began in May 2003. Since that date 25 of these instruments have been deployed on a variety of autonomous underwater vehicles, buoys, piers, channel markers and boats and ships. It has been utilized in CDOM studies off the New Jersey coast, in HAB monitoring efforts in the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, and in phytoplankton community structure studies in the Galapagos Islands and the Mediterranean Sea. Most recently, it has been deployed to Veracruz, Mexico for HAB monitoring. Presently, several OPD's operating on Slocum gliders and coastal buoys make up a local HAB observatory south of Tampa Bay, Florida, partially supported by the NOAA/IOOS through GCOOS. This presentation will detail the OPD's capabilities and report results from several of the deployments listed above. The ongoing effort to effectively visualize 4-D phytoplankton community structure will be discussed. © 2011 SPIE.

Phlips E.J.,University of Florida | Badylak S.,University of Florida | Christman M.,University of Florida | Wolny J.,Florida Institute of Oceanography | And 11 more authors.
Harmful Algae | Year: 2011

This paper describes the results of a harmful algal bloom (HAB) monitoring effort in the Indian River Lagoon. The goal of the study was to describe spatial and temporal variability in the distribution, frequency of occurrence, and composition of HABs, along with an examination of potential driving factors, such as hydrologic conditions and nutrient concentrations. Six sampling sites in the northern lagoon were selected for the study. The composition and abundance of the phytoplankton community was determined microscopically. Water column parameters measured in the study included salinity, water temperature, Secchi depth, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen.Dinoflagellates, diatoms or cyanobacteria dominated the phytoplankton communities in terms of biovolume at all six sampling sites. Five potential toxin producing species were observed at bloom levels during the study period, including the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha and the dinoflagellates Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense, Prorocentrum rathymum, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, and Karlodinium veneficum. The saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate P. bahamense var. bahamense had the highest biovolume observed over the study period, 33.9×106μm3ml-1, and was present in almost half of the samples collected. Three non-toxic HAB species were observed at bloom levels of biovolume, including Akashiwo sanguinea, Peridinium quinquecorne, and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum. As part of this study, a statistical approach to estimating the probability of detecting HAB events was explored, using three common and important HAB species in the IRL, P. bahamense var. bahamense, A. sanguinea and P. calliantha, as exemplars. The potential driving factors for HAB events are discussed within the context of the hydrological, meteorological and watershed characteristics of the lagoon. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Murawski S.A.,University of South Florida | Hogarth W.T.,Florida Institute of Oceanography | Peebles E.B.,University of South Florida | Barbeiri L.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2014

We surveyed offshore fish populations in the Gulf of Mexico in 2011 and 2012, following persistent reports of abnormal skin lesions and other pathologies in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The incidence of skin lesions in 2011 sampling was most frequent in some bottom-dwelling species along the continental shelf edge north of the Deepwater Horizon site. Longline surveys revealed that by 2012 the overall frequency of lesions in northern Gulf of Mexico (NGM) fishes in the vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon had declined 53%, with severity also declining. Relatively high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites (up to 470,000 ng naphthalene equivalents/g bile wet weight), indicative of oil-related pollution, were found in fish bile in 2011; concentrations of summed PAHs measured in fish liver and muscle were relatively low (<35 ng/g) due to the efficient metabolism of these compounds by teleost fish. Significant declines in bile concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene metabolites in Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus between 2011 and 2012 indicate an episodic exposure to elevated levels of hydrocarbons of petrogenic origin. The composition of PAH parent compounds and alkylated homologs in Red Snapper liver samples was highly correlated with oil collected at the Deepwater Horizon wellhead but was less coherent with other PAH sources in the NGM. The elevated 2011 prevalence of skin lesions in some NGM species was unrelated to surface salinity or temperature anomalies and was not the result of an epizootic observable in our histopathology samples but was positively correlated with PAH concentration. Thus, we fail to reject the null hypothesis that elevated skin lesion frequency is unrelated to PAH exposure from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.Received August 14, 2013; accepted March 26, 2014. © 2014 © 2014 The Author(s). Published with license by American Fisheries Society.

Weisberg R.H.,University of South Florida | Liu Y.,University of South Florida | Merz C.R.,University of South Florida | Virmani J.I.,Florida Institute of Oceanography | Zheng L.,University of South Florida
Marine Technology Society Journal | Year: 2012

Using observations of surface winds, solar radiation, ocean currents and waves collected by the University of South Florida, Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMPS), augmented by other data and numerical model simulations, we address the potential for electrical power generation for Florida by harnessing the natural energy sources of wind and solar, along with ocean currents and waves. We begin by identifying what nature offers. For wind and solar, we use specifications from existing, commercially available devices to convert nature's bounty to power generation estimates. In the absence of mature, commercially available devices for ocean currents and waves, we draw upon physical principles to arrive at power generation estimates for these potential sources. On the basis of what nature offers and what machinery may be capable of producing, we then make reasonable extrapolations on what these estimations may mean in a practical sense for supplying energy to society. Power generation from these naturally occurring, alternative energy sources, particularly wind and solar, may provide a means for supplementing power generation by conventional fuels but does not provide a replacement for conventional fuels.

Walsh J.J.,University of South Florida | Tomas C.R.,University of North Carolina at Wilmington | Steidinger K.A.,Florida Institute of Oceanography | Lenes J.M.,University of South Florida | And 6 more authors.
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2011

Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Garrett M.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | Wolny J.,Florida Institute of Oceanography | Truby E.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | Heil C.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | Kovach C.,3051 N. Telecom Parkway
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011

In 2002, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection began discharging phosphate-processing effluent into Bishop Harbor, an estuary within Tampa Bay. Because of concerns that the effluent would serve as a nutrient source for blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, a field monitoring program was established and laboratory bioassays were conducted. Several harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, including Prorocentrum minimum and Heterosigma akashiwo, were observed in bloom concentrations adjacent to the effluent discharge site. Blooms of diatoms were widespread throughout Bishop Harbor. K. brevis was observed with cell concentrations decreasing with increasing proximity to the effluent discharge site. Bioassays using effluent as a nutrient source for K. brevis resulted in decreased cell yields, increased growth rates, and increased time to log-phase growth. The responses of HAB species within Bishop Harbor and of K. brevis to effluent in bioassays suggested that HAB species differ in their response to phosphate-processing effluent. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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