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Kurlansky P.,Florida Heart Research Institute
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2010

As a profession, surgery is well into its fourth decade of experience with bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafting for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Numerous compelling retrospective analyses appear to have documented a clear bene?t for BITA grafting over the use of a single internal thoracic artery (SITA) graft in reducing the long-term risk of mortality, cardiac mortality, and cardiac events. Despite this wealth of literature and scienti?c as well as clinical investigation, the chilling fact remains that the STS database reports that less than 4% of coronary bypass (CABG) operations involve the use of BITA grafting. The historic, physiologic, and clinical aspects of BITA grafting are reviewed. Clini- cal challenges and technical advances are addressed. The future of BITA grafting is explored, both from a research perspective and from a clinical point of view. © Société Internationale de Chirurgie 2009.

Kurlansky P.,Florida Heart Research Institute
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2013

Data from randomized clinical trials comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may not accurately reflect current clinical practice, in which there is off-label usage of drug-eluting stents (DES). We undertook a prospective registry of coronary revascularization by CABG on- and off-pump and PCI with bare-metal stents (BMSs), DESs, or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) to determine clinical outcomes. All patients undergoing isolated coronary revascularization in 8 community-based hospitals were enrolled. Final follow-up was obtained after 5 years by patient and/or physician contact and the Social Security Death Index. ST-elevation myocardial infarction and salvage patients were excluded. Five or more years of follow-up was obtained on 81.5% (3156) of the eligible patients-968 CABG patients (82.0%) and 2188 PCI patients (81.3%). Overall follow-up was 63.5±27.9 months (median, 79.7 months). The incidence of initial major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at follow-up for CABG versus PCI was 29.2% versus 41.8% (P<0.001). Analysis of stent subgroups showed more events with BMSs (equivalent to PTCA alone) compared with DESs. All stents had more events than on- or off-pump CABG groups. Using propensity score-matched groups, the odds ratio for CABG to PCI was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.85; P<0.001) for mortality and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.75; P<0.001) for any MACE. In the current era of DES and off-pump surgery, in a community hospital setting, comparable patients undergoing coronary revascularization appear to benefit from improved long-term survival and reduced MACE with CABG versus PCI.

Kurlansky P.,Florida Heart Research Institute
Current Opinion in Cardiology | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Octogenarians represent the fastest-growing segment of the population. Over 40% manifest cardiovascular disease, frequently in an advanced state requiring surgical revascularization. Increased mortality, morbidity, and expense in this high-risk group, with decreased longevity, present a growing challenge to our healthcare system. RECENT FINDINGS: Results of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in octogenarians show a consistent pattern of improvement over time, with documented long-term survival and quality of life that rivals the age-matched population. Comparison with alternative therapies appears to be favorable. Clearer understanding of costs will provide a more rational context for treatment decisions. Increasing interest in the specific issues regarding frailty will help to guide the most appropriate patient selection. SUMMARY: Although it is clear that CABG surgery in octogenarians can be accomplished with increasingly good results, future research will need to focus on what specific surgical strategies are most appropriate for this elderly cohort; how the collaborative 'Heart Team' approach can be most effectively applied to determination of the most appropriate therapeutic course for these complex, frequently high-risk patients; what strategies can be applied to best manage and possibly reverse patient frailty; and what economic models most meaningfully inform clinical and public policy decision-making. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Kurlansky P.,Florida Heart Research Institute | Kurlansky P.,Columbia University | Herbert M.,Medical City Dallas Hospital | Prince S.,Cardiopulmonary Research Science and Technology Institute | Mack M.J.,Baylor Health Care System
Annals of Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2015

Background Diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate, affecting nearly 8% of the population. Previous studies have demonstrated a potential benefit for surgical over interventional revascularization in diabetics. However, randomized clinical trials comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) many not accurately reflect current clinical practice. We therefore undertook a prospective registry of coronary revascularization (CR) in diabetic patients with CABG, on-pump and off-pump, and PCI with bare-metal and drug-eluting stents to determine long-term clinical outcomes. Methods All patients undergoing isolated CR in 8 community hospitals were enrolled. Follow-up was obtained after 5 to 8 years; all mortalities were checked against the Social Security Death Index. The ST-elevation myocardial infarction and salvage patients were excluded. Propensity matching was used to account for differences between PCI and CABG groups. Survival curves were derived using Kaplan-Meier methods, whereas hazard ratios and cumulative hazards were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results Of the 3,156 patients in the registry, there were 1,082 diabetics; 334 CABG and 748 PCI. Due to the differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups, propensity score matching was used to achieve clinically comparable groups of 240 patients each. In matched patient groups mortality was more common in the PCI group with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39% to 0.93%; p = 0.023). Similarly, occurrence of any major cardiac adverse event (MACE) (mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or revascularization) was more frequent in the PCI group with an OR of 0.57 (95% CI 0.31% to 0.70%, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier event-free survival of matched groups was significantly improved in the CABG versus PCI group (p = 0.001). Conclusions In the current era of on-pump and off-pump CABG surgery and bare-metal and drug-eluting stents, this registry which unselectively records all non-ST elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing coronary revascularization, diabetic patients benefit from improved long-term survival and reduced MACE with CABG versus PCI. These findings corroborate recent evidence from prospective randomized trials and thus provide clinically relevant validation of their broad applicability to diabetics with extensive coronary artery disease in need of revascularization. © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

Kurlansky P.A.,Florida Heart Research Institute | Traad E.A.,Florida Heart Research Institute | Dorman M.J.,Tenet Healthcare Corporation | Galbut D.L.,Florida Heart Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has historically demonstrated higher hospital mortality in women compared with men. The influence of gender on long-term outcomes has not been clearly defined. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4584 consecutive CABG patients was conducted: 3647 men (1761 single internal mammary artery, [SIMA]; 1886 bilateral IMA, [BIMA]) and 937 women (608 SIMA and 329 BIMA). Propensity-score analysis and optimal matching algorithms were used to create matched groups for baseline risk factors between men and women (SIMA: 602 men and 602 women; BIMA: 328 men and 328 women). Cross-sectional follow-up (6 weeks to 32.1 years; mean 12.8 years) was 96.7% complete. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was higher in unmatched female vs male patients (SIMA 36/608; 5.9 vs 72/1761; 4.1%; BIMA 11/329; 3.3 vs 47/1886; 2.5%; P = 0.010). However, in the matched groups the increased hospital mortality for females approached statistical significance in the SIMA but not in the BIMA patients. (SIMA male 21/602, 3.5%; female 35/602, 5.8%; P = 0.055; BIMA male 12/328; 3.7%; female 11/328; 3.4%; P = 0.832). When propensity matched for baseline variables, the female SIMA patients experienced prolonged survival compared with their male counterparts. (male vs female, 20-year survival 17.0 ± 2.0 vs 26.4 ± 2.3%; median 10.4 vs 11.4; P = 0.043.) However, long-term survival between the matched male and the female BIMA patients was comparable (male vs female, 20-year survival 31.3 ± 3.6 vs 30.1 ± 3.6%; median 13.7 vs 13.7; P = 0.790). CONCLUSIONS: When liberally applied, BIMA grafting ameliorates both the increased perioperative mortality in female patients and the reduced long-term survival of male patients, effectively reversing the negative influence of gender on both short- and long-term outcomes of CABG surgery. ©The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.

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