Florida Center for Environmental Studies

Palm Beach Gardens, FL, United States

Florida Center for Environmental Studies

Palm Beach Gardens, FL, United States

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Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington | Carraher C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Shahi K.,University of North Texas | Barot G.,Boston University
Materials | Year: 2011

Polymers containing platinum and to a lesser extent tin, have repeatedly demonstrated antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo against a variety of cell and tumor types. The mechanisms responsible for the antitumor activity include inducing a delay in cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchanges blocking tumor growth. As most DNA and some RNA viruses require, and even induce, infected cells to initiate DNA replication and subsequent cell division, compounds with antitumor activity will very likely also possess antiviral activity. This article examines the use of metal-containing polymers as a novel class of antivirals. © 2011 by the authors.


Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington | Shahi K.,University of North Texas | Barot G.,Boston University
Materials | Year: 2010

The ability to inhibit cancer is inherent in organotin materials yet the structural relationships that regulate/direct this activity remains unknown. We measured antitumor activity using a matched pair of cell lines MDA-MB-231 cells that are estrogen-independent, estrogen receptor negative and MCF-7 cells, a cell line that is estrogen receptor (ER) positive. Those polyethers that contained a O-phenyl unit were able to significantly inhibit the non-estrogen sensitive cell line but were much less effective against the estrogen sensitive cell line; that is, the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 showed better test results for polymers derived from diols containing the O-phenyl moiety than the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, a well-characterized estrogen receptor positive control cell line. Those polyethers that did not contain the O-phenyl unit inhibited both cell lines approximately the same. The differential activity of the O-phenyl-containing polyethers is likely due to the estrogen-sensitive cells combining with some of the organotin polyethers minimizing their ability to inhibit cell growth. © 2011 by the authors.


Carraher C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Carraher S.M.,Indiana Wesleyan University | Carraher S.M.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Polymer Materials | Year: 2011

Many metal-containing polymers containing plant growth hormones, PGHs, from three of the major PGH categories have been synthesized. These PGHs catagories are auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinetins. These polymers generally showed equal or greater ability to perform plantgrowth regulatory functions with respect to seed germination and seedling development in comparison to the controls and PGHs alone. The seeds included food producing damaged and aged seeds that themselves generally exhibited low germination rates. Increases in germination rates were at times over two fold. These polymers can be easily and quickly made employing an industrially accepted technique and commercially available reactants. Thus, production of gram to ton quantities can occur rapidly. It is believed the enhanced effects may be due to the controlled release of the PGHs. © MD Publications Pvt. Ltd.


Carraher C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Morrison A.,Florida Atlantic University | Morrison A.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials | Year: 2014

Organotin polyesters were synthesized from the interfacial condensation of organotin dihalides and salts of 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid. The polymers are synthesized in moderate to high yields and are moderate to high polymers. MALDI MS, IR spectral, and NMR spectral results are consistent with the proposed structure. The Sn–O stretching band is found at about 1,028 cm−1. Infrared spectra are consistent with majority of the products having a non-bridged structure about the tin. All of the polymers exhibit some inhibition of two pancreatic cancer cell lines. The dibutyltin and dicyclohexyltin products show sufficiently good inhibition of both cell lines as to merit further testing. © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Carraher C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington | Thibodeau R.,Florida Atlantic University | Johnson A.M.,University of Texas at Arlington
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

Poly(amine esters) are rapidly formed employing the interfacial condensation of group VA triphenylmetal dihalides with the antibacterial agent norfloxacin in moderate yield and low to high polymers with respect to average chain length. Infrared spectroscopy shows the formation of M-oxygen and MN bonds. The products are largely bridging structures about the metal atom. Proton NMR and MALDI MS results are consistent with the formation of the poly(amine esters). All of the polymers show good activity against several of the tested cancer cell lines. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Carraher C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Truong N.T.C.,Florida Atlantic University | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington | And 3 more authors.
Inorganica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

Polyether esters are rapidly formed employing the interfacial condensation of organotin dihalides with glycyrrhetinic acid in high yield and oligomeric to polymeric chain length. Infrared spectroscopy shows the formation of tin-oxygen bonds. The products are a mixture of bridging and non-bridging structures about the tin atom. Proton NMR and MALDI MS results are consistent with the formation of the poly(ether esters). The dimethyltin, dibutyltin, and diphenyltin polymers exhibit good inhibition of the pancreatic and prostrate cell lines. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Organotin polymers are easily synthesized employing interfacial polymerization systems involving the reaction of difunctional Lewis bases and organotin halides. A wide variety of organotin-containing polymeric products have been synthesized including the first water soluble organotin polymers. The organotin polymers exhibit a wide range of biological activities including the inhibition of a wide variety of cancer cell lines including cell lines associated with ovarian, colon, lung, prostrate, pancreatic and breast cancer. Some also inhibit a variety of viruses including those responsible for herpes infections and smallpox. The synthesis, structural characterization, and biological characterization of these materials are described in this review. & copy; 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Gupta A.,Florida Atlantic University | Gupta A.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington
Journal of Polymer Materials | Year: 2012

Polyamine esters have been formed from the classical interfacial polycondensation of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and organotin dihalides. Reaction is rapid occurring within 15 seconds. Product yield is moderate, 11-47%, with the products being low to moderate polymers, chain length of 37-1200. MALDI MS results show the presents of ion fragments to about 2kDa including ion fragment clusters up to four units in length. Bond scission occurs at the heteroatom sites on the polymer backbone. Infrared results are consistent with the formation of Sn-N and Sn-O(O) C linkages connecting the two moieties. Infrared spectroscopy is also consistent with the products having a mixture of N-Sn-N, N-Sn-O(O)C and C(O)-O-Sn-O-(O)C units about the tin with the geometry about the tin atom being a mixture of tetrahedral and octahedral, with the octahedral geometry the result of backbonding by the carbonyl oxygen. NMR shows the presence of both reactant moieties. The diethyltin and dibutyltin polymers exhibited favorable inhibition of two pancreatic cancer cell lines. © MD Publications Pvt. Ltd.


Carraher C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington | Ayoub M.,Florida Atlantic University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials | Year: 2015

Polyesters derived from the interfacial reaction of the salt of chelidonic acid and triphenylarsenic dibromide, triphenylantimony dichloride, and triphenylbismuth dichloride are formed in moderate yield using commercially available reactants. IR data shows new bands characteristic of the formation of the M-O bond. MALDI MS shows formation of ion fragment clusters to two units. The polymers were tested for their ability to inhibit prostate, colon, breast (two cell lines), and pancreatic (two cell lines) cancer cells. All polymers showed ability to inhibit some of the cancer cell lines. The arsenic polymer exhibits good inhibition of the AsPC-1 pancreatic cell line. All three polymers inhibit the estrogen independent 7233 cell line to a much greater extent compared to inhibition of the 7259 estrogen positive receptor cell line. The arsenic and bismuth polymers also exhibit decent inhibition of the other cancer cell lines while the antimony polymer shows only decent inhibition of the 3465 prostate cell line. (Chemical Presented). © 2015 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington | Pham N.,Florida Atlantic University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2014

The interfacial condensation between the salt of thiodiglycolic acid and the Group V dihalides produces the corresponding polyesters in moderate to good yield in 15 secs and less. The products are tacky to glassy. Infrared spectroscopy shows the formation of the M-O linkage with bands present derived from both reactants. The geometry about the metal is predominately non-bridging. MALDI MS shows ion fragment clusters to two repeat units with ion fragment clusters consistent with the formation of the M-O-C(O)- linkage. The arsenic polymer exhibits outstanding inhibition of the AsPC-1 adenocarcinoma pancreatic cancer cell line. Both the arsenic and antimony polymer show good inhibition of the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line. The antimony polymer shows good inhibition of both the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that are estrogen-independent and estrogen receptor negative and the MCF-7 breast cancer cells that are an estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancer cell line. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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