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Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington | Carraher C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Shahi K.,University of North Texas | Barot G.,Boston University
Materials | Year: 2011

Polymers containing platinum and to a lesser extent tin, have repeatedly demonstrated antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo against a variety of cell and tumor types. The mechanisms responsible for the antitumor activity include inducing a delay in cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchanges blocking tumor growth. As most DNA and some RNA viruses require, and even induce, infected cells to initiate DNA replication and subsequent cell division, compounds with antitumor activity will very likely also possess antiviral activity. This article examines the use of metal-containing polymers as a novel class of antivirals. © 2011 by the authors. Source


Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Organotin polymers are easily synthesized employing interfacial polymerization systems involving the reaction of difunctional Lewis bases and organotin halides. A wide variety of organotin-containing polymeric products have been synthesized including the first water soluble organotin polymers. The organotin polymers exhibit a wide range of biological activities including the inhibition of a wide variety of cancer cell lines including cell lines associated with ovarian, colon, lung, prostrate, pancreatic and breast cancer. Some also inhibit a variety of viruses including those responsible for herpes infections and smallpox. The synthesis, structural characterization, and biological characterization of these materials are described in this review. & copy; 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington | Shahi K.,University of North Texas | Barot G.,Boston University
Materials | Year: 2010

The ability to inhibit cancer is inherent in organotin materials yet the structural relationships that regulate/direct this activity remains unknown. We measured antitumor activity using a matched pair of cell lines MDA-MB-231 cells that are estrogen-independent, estrogen receptor negative and MCF-7 cells, a cell line that is estrogen receptor (ER) positive. Those polyethers that contained a O-phenyl unit were able to significantly inhibit the non-estrogen sensitive cell line but were much less effective against the estrogen sensitive cell line; that is, the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 showed better test results for polymers derived from diols containing the O-phenyl moiety than the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, a well-characterized estrogen receptor positive control cell line. Those polyethers that did not contain the O-phenyl unit inhibited both cell lines approximately the same. The differential activity of the O-phenyl-containing polyethers is likely due to the estrogen-sensitive cells combining with some of the organotin polyethers minimizing their ability to inhibit cell growth. © 2011 by the authors. Source


Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher Jr. C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Gupta A.,Florida Atlantic University | Gupta A.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Roner M.R.,University of Texas at Arlington
Journal of Polymer Materials | Year: 2012

Polyamine esters have been formed from the classical interfacial polycondensation of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and organotin dihalides. Reaction is rapid occurring within 15 seconds. Product yield is moderate, 11-47%, with the products being low to moderate polymers, chain length of 37-1200. MALDI MS results show the presents of ion fragments to about 2kDa including ion fragment clusters up to four units in length. Bond scission occurs at the heteroatom sites on the polymer backbone. Infrared results are consistent with the formation of Sn-N and Sn-O(O) C linkages connecting the two moieties. Infrared spectroscopy is also consistent with the products having a mixture of N-Sn-N, N-Sn-O(O)C and C(O)-O-Sn-O-(O)C units about the tin with the geometry about the tin atom being a mixture of tetrahedral and octahedral, with the octahedral geometry the result of backbonding by the carbonyl oxygen. NMR shows the presence of both reactant moieties. The diethyltin and dibutyltin polymers exhibited favorable inhibition of two pancreatic cancer cell lines. © MD Publications Pvt. Ltd. Source


Carraher C.E.,Florida Atlantic University | Carraher C.E.,Florida Center for Environmental Studies | Carraher S.M.,Indiana Wesleyan University | Carraher S.M.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Polymer Materials | Year: 2011

Many metal-containing polymers containing plant growth hormones, PGHs, from three of the major PGH categories have been synthesized. These PGHs catagories are auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinetins. These polymers generally showed equal or greater ability to perform plantgrowth regulatory functions with respect to seed germination and seedling development in comparison to the controls and PGHs alone. The seeds included food producing damaged and aged seeds that themselves generally exhibited low germination rates. Increases in germination rates were at times over two fold. These polymers can be easily and quickly made employing an industrially accepted technique and commercially available reactants. Thus, production of gram to ton quantities can occur rapidly. It is believed the enhanced effects may be due to the controlled release of the PGHs. © MD Publications Pvt. Ltd. Source

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