Bryn Mawr, PA, United States
Bryn Mawr, PA, United States

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Kilgore K.P.,Florida College | Lee M.S.,University of Minnesota | Leavitt J.A.,Mayo Medical School | Mokri B.,Mayo Medical School | And 3 more authors.
Ophthalmology | Year: 2017

Purpose: To re-evaluate the population-based incidence of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and to determine if it mirrors the rise in obesity. Design: Retrospective, population-based cohort. Participants: All residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, diagnosed with IIH between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2014. Methods: All cases of IIH were identified using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, which is a record-linkage system of medical records for all patient-physician encounters among Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents. All medical records were reviewed to confirm a diagnosis of IIH. The incidence rates of IIH were compared against the incidence of obesity in Minnesota over the same period. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of IIH, lumbar puncture opening pressures, and body mass index. Results: There were 63 new cases of IIH, yielding an overall age- and gender-adjusted annual incidence of 1.8 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.2) between 1990 and 2014. It increased from 1.0 per 100 000 (1990-2001) to 2.4 per 100 000 (2002-2014; P = 0.007). The incidence of IIH was 3.3 per 100 000 in women and 0.3 per 100 000 in men (P ≤ 0.001). In obese women 15 to 44 years of age, the incidence was 22.0 per 100 000 compared with 6.8 per 100 000 among all women in the same age group. A strong correlation was observed between IIH incidence rates and obesity rates in Minnesota (R 2 = 0.70, P = 0.008). Conclusions: The incidence of IIH has increased since 1990, which is highly correlated with the rise in obesity during the same period. © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology.


Justin Rossi P.,University of FloridaGainesville | Peden C.,Florida Biomed | Castellanos O.,Florida Biomed | Foote K.D.,University of FloridaGainesville | And 2 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2017

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) have recently been shown to encode reward, but few studies have been performed in humans. We investigated STN and GPi encoding of reward and loss (i.e., valence) in humans with Parkinson's disease. To test the hypothesis that STN and GPi neurons would change their firing rate in response to reward- and loss-related stimuli, we recorded the activity of individual neurons while participants performed a behavioral task. In the task, action choices were associated with potential rewarding, punitive, or neutral outcomes. We found that STN and GPi neurons encode valence-related information during action control, but the proportion of valence-responsive neurons was greater in the STN compared to the GPi. In the STN, reward-related stimuli mobilized a greater proportion of neurons than loss-related stimuli. We also found surprising limbic overlap with the sensorimotor regions in both the STN and GPi, and this overlap was greater than has been previously reported. These findings may help to explain alterations in limbic function that have been observed following deep brain stimulation therapy of the STN and GPi. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Hsieh K.C.,Florida Biomed | Wandell R.J.,Florida Biomed | Locke B.R.,Florida Biomed
Plasma Processes and Polymers | Year: 2017

Production rates of hydroxyl radical (•OH) formation in a gas-liquid plasma discharge reactor with pure water and argon were quantified using gas (carbon monoxide: CO) and liquid (ethanol) radical scavengers. The major oxidation products were acetaldehyde from ethanol and carbon dioxide (CO2) from CO. Total •OH production rates were estimated from the •OH required to form these products and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Ethanol completely depleted H2O2 suggesting that it is formed in or near the plasma-liquid interface. •OH production rates were higher with CO, and CO had a smaller effect on H2O2 suggesting additional •OH is available for other reactions at the plasma-gas interface. The best case total •OH production was approximately 25% of the thermodynamic limit for water dissociation based upon measured CO2 from CO. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Bracho-Sanchez E.,Florida Biomed | Xia C.Q.,Florida College | Clare-Salzler M.J.,Florida College | Keselowsky B.G.,Florida Biomed
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2016

Modulation of the immune system through the use of micro and nano carriers offers opportunities in transplant tolerance, autoimmunity, infectious disease, and cancer. In particular, polymeric, lipid, and inorganic materials have been used as carriers of proteins, nucleic acids, and small drug molecules to direct the immune system toward either suppressive or stimulatory states. Current technologies have focused on the use of particulates or scaffolds, the modulation of materials properties, and the delivery of biologics or small drug molecules to achieve a desired response. Discussed are relevant immunology concepts, the types of biomaterial carriers used for immunomodulation highlighting their benefits and drawbacks, the material properties influencing immune responses, and recent examples in the field of transplant tolerance. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.


Pirmohamed T.,Florida Biomed | Dowding J.M.,Florida Biomed | Singh S.,Florida Biomed | Wasserman B.,Florida Biomed | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2010

In this study we have found that cerium oxide nanoparticles exhibit catalase mimetic activity. Surprisingly, the catalase mimetic activity correlates with a reduced level of cerium in the +3 state, in contrast to the relationship between surface charge and superoxide scavenging properties. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Duncan-Lewis C.A.,University of Central Florida | Lukman R.L.,Florida Biomed | Banks R.K.,University of Central Florida
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2011

Intranasal application of zinc gluconate has commonly been used to treat the common cold. The safety of this treatment, however, has come into question recently. In addition to a United States recall of a homeopathic product that contains zinc gluconate, abundant literature reports cytotoxic effects of zinc on the olfactory epithelium. Additional research suggests that divalent cations (such as zinc) can block ion channels that facilitate the transduction of odors into electrical signals on the olfactory epithelium. The purpose of the current study was 2-fold: to confirm whether zinc gluconate causes anosmia and to reveal whether any other divalent cationic compounds produce a similar effect. Groups of mice underwent a buried food-pellet test to gauge olfactory function and then were nasally irrigated with 1 of 3 divalent cationic compounds. When tested after treatment, mice irrigated with zinc gluconate and copper gluconate experienced a marked increase in food-finding time, indicating that they had lost their ability to smell a hidden food source. Control mice irrigated with saline had a significantly lower increase in times. These results confirm that zinc gluconate can cause anosmia and reveal that multiple divalent cations can negatively affect olfaction. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.


Mohr D.C.,Northwestern University | Schueller S.M.,Northwestern University | Montague E.,Northwestern University | Burns M.N.,Northwestern University | Rashidi P.,Florida Biomed
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2014

A growing number of investigators have commented on the lack of models to inform the design of behavioral intervention technologies (BITs). BITs, which include a subset of mHealth and eHealth interventions, employ a broad range of technologies, such as mobile phones, the Web, and sensors, to support users in changing behaviors and cognitions related to health, mental health, and wellness. We propose a model that conceptually defines BITs, from the clinical aim to the technological delivery framework. The BIT model defines both the conceptual and technological architecture of a BIT. Conceptually, a BIT model should answer the questions why, what, how (conceptual and technical), and when. While BITs generally have a larger treatment goal, such goals generally consist of smaller intervention aims (the why) such as promotion or reduction of specific behaviors, and behavior change strategies (the conceptual how), such as education, goal setting, and monitoring. Behavior change strategies are instantiated with specific intervention components or elements (the what). The characteristics of intervention elements may be further defined or modified (the technical how) to meet the needs, capabilities, and preferences of a user. Finally, many BITs require specification of a workflow that defines when an intervention component will be delivered. The BIT model includes a technological framework (BIT-Tech) that can integrate and implement the intervention elements, characteristics, and workflow to deliver the entire BIT to users over time. This implementation may be either predefined or include adaptive systems that can tailor the intervention based on data from the user and the user's environment. The BIT model provides a step towards formalizing the translation of developer aims into intervention components, larger treatments, and methods of delivery in a manner that supports research and communication between investigators on how to design, develop, and deploy BITs.


Blake K.V.,Florida Biomed
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2016

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor adherence to asthma controller medications, particularly inhaled corticosteroids, has been well known for decades and is a major cause of uncontrolled asthma and increased healthcare utilization. This review presents recent evidence on factors leading to nonadherence in specific age groups, parents of young children, adolescents and young adults, adults, and the elderly. Novel management strategies including electronic sensors with associated smart phone applications for adherence improvement are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Interventions to promote adherence must include a focus on issues important to the patient. Parents are concerned about adverse effects and the difficulty of medication administration in their child; adolescents and young adults need help with organizational skills and social barriers; adults may be more receptive to the need for daily medication after an acute exacerbation and acceptance of their disease; the elderly may have medication misuse issues associated with cognitive decline and other comorbidities related to aging. In all age groups, a trusting relationship with the provider is the key. New digital devices to track adherence may provide feedback to the patient and provider to evaluate and to promote adherence. SUMMARY: Personalized approaches are required to address adherence barriers in target populations. Research on specific needs and barriers in target populations and development of appropriate strategies for use of new digital technology for adherence monitoring is needed. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Haran F.J.,Florida Biomed
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE:: To establish the reliable change parameters for the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) using a healthy normative sample of active duty service members (SMs) and apply the parameters to sample of recently deployed SMs. METHODS:: Postdeployment neurocognitive performance was compared in 1893 US Marines with high rates of combat exposure during deployment. Of the sample, 289 SMs had data for 2 predeployment assessments and were used as a normative subsample and 502 SMs had data for predeployment and postdeployment assessments and were used as a deployed subsample. On the basis of self-report, the deployed subsample were further classified as concussed (n = 238) or as nonconcussed controls (n = 264). Reliable change parameters were estimated from the normative sample and applied data for both deployed groups. Postdeployment performance was quantified using a general linear model (2 group × 2 time) multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures. RESULTS:: Both deployed groups demonstrated a pattern of meaningful decreases in performance over time. CONCLUSIONS:: Information from this effort, specifically the reliable change parameters and the base rates of reliable decline, can be used to assist with the identification of postdeployment cognitive issues. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


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