Bryn Mawr, PA, United States
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Deandrade M.P.,Florida College | Trongnetrpunya A.,Florida Biomed | Yokoi F.,Florida College | Cheetham C.C.,University of Alabama | And 2 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2016

Introduction: DYT1 dystonia is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder characterized by abnormal, often repetitive, movements and postures. Its hallmark feature is sustained or intermittent contractions of muscles involving co-contractions of antagonist muscle pairs. The symptoms are relieved with the anticholinergic drug trihexyphenidyl. The primary mutation is a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) in DYT1/TOR1A, which codes for torsinA. Previous studies showed that (1) heterozygous Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice, which have an analogous mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and altered corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in the brain and (2) these deficits can be rescued by trihexyphenidyl. However, brain imaging studies suggest that the Dyt1 knock-in mouse models nonmanifesting mutation carriers of DYT1 dystonia. The aim of this work was to examine the hallmark features of DYT1 dystonia in the Dyt1 knock-in mice by analyzing muscular activities. Methods: Wireless telemetry devices with biopotential channels were implanted to the bicep and the rectus femori muscles in Dyt1 knock-in mice, and muscular activities were recorded before and after trihexyphenidyl administration. Results: (1) Consistent with DYT1 dystonia patients, Dyt1 knock-in mice showed sustained contractions and co-contractions of the antagonistic bicep femoris and rectus femoris. (2) The abnormal muscle contractions were normalized by trihexyphenidyl. Conclusion: The results suggest that the motor deficits in Dyt1 knock-in mice are likely produced by abnormal muscle contractions, and Dyt1 knock-in mice can potentially be used as a manifesting disease model to study pathophysiology and develop novel therapeutics. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

Okun M.S.,Center for Movement Disorders and NeurorestorationUniversity of FloridaGainesville | Mcfarland N.R.,Center for Movement Disorders and NeurorestorationUniversity of FloridaGainesville | Vaillancourt D.E.,Florida Biomed
Movement Disorders | Year: 2015

The basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical and cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuits are important for motor control. Whether their functioning is affected in a similar or different way by progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is not clear. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) force production paradigm and voxel-based morphometry were used to assess differences in brain activity and macrostructural volumes between PSP, PD, and healthy age-matched controls. We found that PSP and PD share reduced functional activity of the basal ganglia and cortical motor areas, but this is more pronounced in PSP than in PD. In PSP the frontal regions are underactive, whereas the posterior parietal and occipital regions are overactive as compared with controls and PD. Furthermore, lobules I through IV, V, and VI of the cerebellum are hypoactive in PSP and PD, whereas Crus I and lobule IX are hyperactive in PSP only. Reductions in gray and white matter volume are specific to PSP. Finally, the functional status of the caudate as well as the volume of the superior frontal gyrus predict clinical gait and posture measures in PSP. PSP and PD share hypoactivity of the basal ganglia, motor cortex, and anterior cerebellum. These patients also display a unique pattern, such that anterior regions of the cortex are hypoactive and posterior regions of the cortex and cerebellum are hyperactive. Together, these findings suggest that specific structures within the basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum are affected differently in PSP relative to PD. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

Bracho-Sanchez E.,Florida Biomed | Xia C.Q.,Florida College | Clare-Salzler M.J.,Florida College | Keselowsky B.G.,Florida Biomed
American Journal of Transplantation | Year: 2016

Modulation of the immune system through the use of micro and nano carriers offers opportunities in transplant tolerance, autoimmunity, infectious disease, and cancer. In particular, polymeric, lipid, and inorganic materials have been used as carriers of proteins, nucleic acids, and small drug molecules to direct the immune system toward either suppressive or stimulatory states. Current technologies have focused on the use of particulates or scaffolds, the modulation of materials properties, and the delivery of biologics or small drug molecules to achieve a desired response. Discussed are relevant immunology concepts, the types of biomaterial carriers used for immunomodulation highlighting their benefits and drawbacks, the material properties influencing immune responses, and recent examples in the field of transplant tolerance. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

Pirmohamed T.,Florida Biomed | Dowding J.M.,Florida Biomed | Singh S.,Florida Biomed | Wasserman B.,Florida Biomed | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2010

In this study we have found that cerium oxide nanoparticles exhibit catalase mimetic activity. Surprisingly, the catalase mimetic activity correlates with a reduced level of cerium in the +3 state, in contrast to the relationship between surface charge and superoxide scavenging properties. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Duncan-Lewis C.A.,University of Central Florida | Lukman R.L.,Florida Biomed | Banks R.K.,University of Central Florida
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2011

Intranasal application of zinc gluconate has commonly been used to treat the common cold. The safety of this treatment, however, has come into question recently. In addition to a United States recall of a homeopathic product that contains zinc gluconate, abundant literature reports cytotoxic effects of zinc on the olfactory epithelium. Additional research suggests that divalent cations (such as zinc) can block ion channels that facilitate the transduction of odors into electrical signals on the olfactory epithelium. The purpose of the current study was 2-fold: to confirm whether zinc gluconate causes anosmia and to reveal whether any other divalent cationic compounds produce a similar effect. Groups of mice underwent a buried food-pellet test to gauge olfactory function and then were nasally irrigated with 1 of 3 divalent cationic compounds. When tested after treatment, mice irrigated with zinc gluconate and copper gluconate experienced a marked increase in food-finding time, indicating that they had lost their ability to smell a hidden food source. Control mice irrigated with saline had a significantly lower increase in times. These results confirm that zinc gluconate can cause anosmia and reveal that multiple divalent cations can negatively affect olfaction. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

Mohr D.C.,Northwestern University | Schueller S.M.,Northwestern University | Montague E.,Northwestern University | Burns M.N.,Northwestern University | Rashidi P.,Florida Biomed
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2014

A growing number of investigators have commented on the lack of models to inform the design of behavioral intervention technologies (BITs). BITs, which include a subset of mHealth and eHealth interventions, employ a broad range of technologies, such as mobile phones, the Web, and sensors, to support users in changing behaviors and cognitions related to health, mental health, and wellness. We propose a model that conceptually defines BITs, from the clinical aim to the technological delivery framework. The BIT model defines both the conceptual and technological architecture of a BIT. Conceptually, a BIT model should answer the questions why, what, how (conceptual and technical), and when. While BITs generally have a larger treatment goal, such goals generally consist of smaller intervention aims (the why) such as promotion or reduction of specific behaviors, and behavior change strategies (the conceptual how), such as education, goal setting, and monitoring. Behavior change strategies are instantiated with specific intervention components or elements (the what). The characteristics of intervention elements may be further defined or modified (the technical how) to meet the needs, capabilities, and preferences of a user. Finally, many BITs require specification of a workflow that defines when an intervention component will be delivered. The BIT model includes a technological framework (BIT-Tech) that can integrate and implement the intervention elements, characteristics, and workflow to deliver the entire BIT to users over time. This implementation may be either predefined or include adaptive systems that can tailor the intervention based on data from the user and the user's environment. The BIT model provides a step towards formalizing the translation of developer aims into intervention components, larger treatments, and methods of delivery in a manner that supports research and communication between investigators on how to design, develop, and deploy BITs.

Blake K.V.,Florida Biomed
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2016

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor adherence to asthma controller medications, particularly inhaled corticosteroids, has been well known for decades and is a major cause of uncontrolled asthma and increased healthcare utilization. This review presents recent evidence on factors leading to nonadherence in specific age groups, parents of young children, adolescents and young adults, adults, and the elderly. Novel management strategies including electronic sensors with associated smart phone applications for adherence improvement are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Interventions to promote adherence must include a focus on issues important to the patient. Parents are concerned about adverse effects and the difficulty of medication administration in their child; adolescents and young adults need help with organizational skills and social barriers; adults may be more receptive to the need for daily medication after an acute exacerbation and acceptance of their disease; the elderly may have medication misuse issues associated with cognitive decline and other comorbidities related to aging. In all age groups, a trusting relationship with the provider is the key. New digital devices to track adherence may provide feedback to the patient and provider to evaluate and to promote adherence. SUMMARY: Personalized approaches are required to address adherence barriers in target populations. Research on specific needs and barriers in target populations and development of appropriate strategies for use of new digital technology for adherence monitoring is needed. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Haran F.J.,Florida Biomed
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE:: To establish the reliable change parameters for the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) using a healthy normative sample of active duty service members (SMs) and apply the parameters to sample of recently deployed SMs. METHODS:: Postdeployment neurocognitive performance was compared in 1893 US Marines with high rates of combat exposure during deployment. Of the sample, 289 SMs had data for 2 predeployment assessments and were used as a normative subsample and 502 SMs had data for predeployment and postdeployment assessments and were used as a deployed subsample. On the basis of self-report, the deployed subsample were further classified as concussed (n = 238) or as nonconcussed controls (n = 264). Reliable change parameters were estimated from the normative sample and applied data for both deployed groups. Postdeployment performance was quantified using a general linear model (2 group × 2 time) multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures. RESULTS:: Both deployed groups demonstrated a pattern of meaningful decreases in performance over time. CONCLUSIONS:: Information from this effort, specifically the reliable change parameters and the base rates of reliable decline, can be used to assist with the identification of postdeployment cognitive issues. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cimenler U.,Florida Biomed | Joseph B.,Florida Biomed | Kuhn J.N.,Florida Biomed
AIChE Journal | Year: 2016

A Silicalite-1 zeolite membrane encapsulated 1.6 wt % Ni-1.2 wt % Mg/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 steam reforming composite catalyst synthesized by a physical coating method was used to investigate effect of encapsulation on size selective steam reforming, using methane (CH4) and toluene (C7H8) as representative species. Characterization methods (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Physisorption Analysis, and x-ray diffraction (XRD)) were used to analyze pre- and post-reaction samples. SEM, EDS, and XRD analyses showed that Silicalite-1 was coated successfully onto the core catalyst. Weisz-Prater Criteria and Thiele moduli calculations indicated internal diffusion limitations. Combined reforming of CH4 and C7H8 at 800°C on the composite catalyst demonstrated stability during the 10 h time on stream while the uncoated SR catalyst deactivated. The non-acidic Silicalite-1 encapsulated catalyst showed decreases (∼2-7%) in both CH4 and C7H8 conversions compared to acidic H-β zeolite confirming that shell acidity did contribute to conversion and suggested that shell defects/grain boundaries were responsible for the C7H8 conversion. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

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