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Sakzewski L.,University of Queensland | Sakzewski L.,Florey Neuroscience Institutes Austin | Ziviani J.,University of Queensland | Abbott D.F.,Florey Neuroscience Institutes Austin | And 8 more authors.
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair | Year: 2011

Objectives. To determine retention of treatment outcomes at 52 weeks following a matched-pairs randomized comparison trial of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual training (BIM). Methods. Sixty-four children (mean age = 10.2 ± 2.7 years, 52% male) were included. The Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function (MUUL), Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were the primary outcome measures. Evaluations were at baseline and at 26 and 52 weeks. Results. There were no baseline differences between groups on any measure. No significant differences were found between groups on primary outcomes at 52 weeks. Both groups retained the significant gains made from baseline to 26 weeks at the 1-year follow-up assessment for unimanual capacity on the MUUL, for bimanual performance on the AHA, and on the COPM. Conclusion. Intensive unimanual and bimanual training can both lead to long-term significant improvements in unimanual capacity, bimanual performance, and individualized outcomes. Gains established at 26 weeks were maintained at 12 months postintervention despite most children receiving no direct therapy during that time. © 2011 The Author(s).


Vears D.F.,University of Melbourne | Tsai M.-H.,University of Melbourne | Sadleir L.G.,University of Otago | Grinton B.E.,University of Melbourne | And 8 more authors.
Epilepsia | Year: 2012

Purpose: To accurately determine the frequency and nature of the family history of seizures in patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Method: Participants with BECTS were recruited from the electroencephalography (EEG) laboratories of three pediatric centers and by referral. Pedigrees were constructed for up to three degrees of relatedness for each proband. All available affected and unaffected individuals underwent phenotyping using a validated seizure questionnaire. The proportion of affected relatives according to degree of relatedness was calculated and phenotypic patterns were analyzed. Key Findings: Fifty-three probands with BECTS had a mean age of seizure onset at 7.8 years (range 2-12 years). Thirty-four (64%) of 53 patients were male. For 51 participants, pedigrees were available for three degrees of relatedness. Fifty-seven (2.7%) of 2,085 relatives had a history of seizures: Twenty-one (9.8%) of 214 first-degree, 15 (3%) of 494 second-degree, and 21 (1.5%) of 1,377 third-degree relatives. Febrile seizures were the most frequent phenotype, occurring in 26 of 57 affected relatives. There were 34 relatives with epilepsy: 6.5% (14 of 214) first-degree, 1.8% (9 of 494) second-degree, and 0.8% (11 of 1,377) third-degree relatives. Of 21 affected first-degree relatives: 8 of 21 had febrile seizures (FS), 4 had BECTS, 2 had epilepsy-aphasia spectrum disorder, one had temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, 2 had focal epilepsy of unknown cause, 2 had genetic generalized epilepsies, and 3 had miscellaneous. Significance: The frequency of epilepsies in relatives and the heterogeneous syndromes observed suggest that BECTS has a genetic component consistent with complex inheritance. Focal epilepsies are the most common seizure disorder observed in relatives, especially BECTS and epilepsy-aphasia spectrum disorder. Additional acquired or environmental factors are likely to be necessary for expression of the seizure disorder. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

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