Flint and Neill Ltd

Flint and, United Kingdom

Flint and Neill Ltd

Flint and, United Kingdom
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Knight D.,Flint and Neill Ltd | Firth I.,Flint and Neill Ltd
IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment | Year: 2016

Greenwich Reach Swing Bridge is a cable stayed footbridge with a single mast and a central cable plane that swings open to allow river traffic to pass. This paper outlines the development of the scheme, highlighting the built-in adaptability of the approach structures to accommodate sea level rises, and the generation of human scale architecture and detailing to compliment the urban and mainly residential river front site. The project's focus on innovative ways to reduce future maintenance requirements is highlighted, and key points of interest in the structural design are outlined. The paper also describes issues associated with predicted vortex-induced vibration in the mast observed during wind tunnel testing due to the bluff-faced shape. The resultant design development is discussed, including the adopted mitigation solution.

Bahra A.,Flint and Neill Ltd. | Firth I.,Flint and Neill Ltd.
IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment | Year: 2016

The new Inner Harbour Bridge in Copenhagen is innovative both in its method of opening and a number of its design features. The moving bridge comprises two steel box girders that retract by sliding between fixed concrete approach spans. The steel box girders are of a highly unusual form involving plan curvature, continually changing cross sections and a faceted-or triangulated-inner web. Furthermore, because of the support arrangement, the girders go from cantilevering to simply-supported conditions over the course of an opening cycle. The dynamic response of the box girders, with 35 m cantilevering spans in the service condition, presented a challenge which was addressed in the design by a combination of rationalised design criteria and the application of a series of tuned mass dampers. The project has been delayed for a variety of reasons, not least due to the original contractor going into liquidation part way through, and the fixed concrete spans were modified by adding a new composite top layer of reinforced concrete following the original casting. This paper touches briefly on the unique form and opening mechanism of the bridge and then turns to the details of some of the novel structural aspects.

MacKenzie D.K.,Flint and Neill Ltd | Colford B.,Forth Estuary Transport Authority
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management, Resilience and Sustainability - Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management | Year: 2012

The operation of major bridges provides a clear insight into some of the limitations within the design process, where the designers' emphasis on strength and stiffness often neglect important considerations of maintenance. Difficulties occur primarily with access and the replacement of components that do not have the same design life as the bridge, resulting in significant increases to operation costs and even the inability to carry out maintenance. Although modern design of cable supported bridges embraces planned cable replacement as a standard design case, issues still abound with items such as the replacement of bearings, joints and holding down bolts and safety fences. In the case of cable replacement, the load case is considered but not the impact on traffic, the use of temporary works and the safety of operators carrying out the works. In the design and build framework where performance specifications work well for strength and stiffness constraint, less attention is paid to the equally important maintenance design case. This paper looks at the difficulties in maintaining major bridges and the examines how designers can consider access and maintenance issues as design cases alongside conventional strength and displacement criteria, resulting in greater reliability of the structure. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group.

Rees J.,Flint and Neill Ltd | Southgate M.,Arqiva
Journal of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures | Year: 2014

Digital television (DTV) antennas are often mounted on tall guyed masts; these are relatively flexible structures and will deflect and rotate under wind loading. Rotation of a DTV antenna will alter the population coverage and time availability of the broadcast signal. This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the effect of guyed mast rotations under along-wind loading on the performance of broadcast antennas. The method is illustrated by application to Winter Hill Mast (north of Manchester) which, at the time of the study, has the greatest population coverage of any TV broadcast structure in the Arqiva portfolio. © 2014 by John Rees Martin Southgate.

Yeow H.-C.,Flint and Neill Ltd
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2014

The increasing use of the finite-element method in geotechnical design has raised the question of the compliance of this design approach with Eurocode requirements for the ultimate limit state conditions, especially when a more complex soil constitutive model has been used. Past authors have identified several important issues relating to the application of the finite-element method in ultimate limit state design, including the effects of initial stresses, effects of stress history, choice of soil model, significance of the failure of structural member and the timing when the partial factor of safety is applied during the design assessment. In this paper, an advanced ‘Brick’ soil model has been used to demonstrate its application in the design of different geotechnical structures and the effects of the design assumptions used in the design of these structures. The paper also demonstrates the versatility of the Brick soil model in the derivation of the new set of input parameters when the necessary partial factor is applied to the strength of the soil as required in the Eurocode design approach. © 2014, Thomas Telford Services Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wood H.J.,Flint and Neill Ltd
Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development - Proceedings of the XVI European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, ECSMGE 2015 | Year: 2015

The Mersey Gateway Bridge includes a 1km long three tower cable stayed bridge across the River Mersey estuary. To optimise the span arrangement for the superstructure the plan extent of the foundations needed to be minimised. This led to the selection of direct foundations on sandstone bedrock identified at 10- 15m depth below the river bed. A description of the interpretation of the ground investigation data is presented to allow the design of circular spread footings. Details of the assessment of the bearing capacity and stiffness of the foundations are described and related to the proposed construction monitoring to verify the foundation behaviour. © The authors and ICE Publishing: All rights reserved, 2015.

Firth I.,Flint and Neill Ltd | Bahra A.,Flint and Neill Ltd
Engineering for Progress, Nature and People | Year: 2014

This opening bridge was the winner in an international design competition held by Copenhagen City Council during 2009. The elegant but subtly understated bridge has an opening span of 55m, a total length of 240m carries pedestrians and cyclists across the harbour between the heart of the city and the Opera House. The central steel opening part is 7m wide and has a unique sliding mechanism, rolling back between the two fixed approaches, each 4m wide, with one for cyclists and one for pedestrians. This unique opening system creates an experience which is expected to become a popular city centre attraction as well as an important new transport corridor for cyclists and pedestrians. This paper describes the design concept and evolution, and addresses the integration of architectural ideals and engineering requirements to produce a solution sensitive to its urban context.

Bonnett J.,Flint and Neill Ltd. | Cooper D.,Flint and Neill Ltd.
Engineering for Progress, Nature and People | Year: 2014

Assessment and the design of strengthening are important to ensure that our ageing infrastructure can continue to function. This paper examines the approaches that may be taken to the design of strengthening for a highway structure which does not meet assessment standards in its entirety. Three case studies are described to examine the reasons that different strategies have been applied to the use of loading and design standards. A particular example is given for the Hammersmith Flyover where the change to Eurocode loading would have had significant implications for the design of strengthening of key elements. It is concluded that application of full Eurocode provisions to strengthening projects is not always appropriate and that consideration must be given to the use of standards particular to individual circumstances to ensure that existing structures can be sustained economically and practically.

Walker C.,Flint and Neill Ltd | Stafford P.J.,Imperial College London
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering | Year: 2010

Modal superposition techniques such as the responsespectrum method (RSM) can be used to quickly estimate the peak response of a structure to earthquake-induced vibration and, as such, are widely used in preliminary design. Modal-combination rules for use with the RSM are typically founded on assumptions of linear structural behaviour, well-separated natural modes, classical damping and stationary excitation. By contrast, the response of cable-stayed bridges is known to be nonlinear with three-dimensional orthogonal mode shapes that can be coupled and closely spaced. Furthermore, it is widely known that the use of stationary stochastic processes for modelling earthquake excitation is a firstorder approximation and there is thus sufficient reason to doubt the validity of the RSM for estimating the response of cable-stayed bridges. This paper critiques the historical development and theoretical consistency of popular modal-combination rules with a view to assessing their suitability for estimating the response of cable-stayed bridges and their relative performance is investigated using an example finite-element model. In many cases, the more sophisticated modal-combination rules can be reliably employed; however, numerous scenarios are envisaged where such rules are likely to be inaccurate and caution is advised against their use under these circumstances.

Firth I.,Flint and Neill Ltd
Structural Engineer | Year: 2010

For many engineers, the steel box girder story starts with disaster. The memories of the tragic events of 1970 and 1971 are still raw for some, and the implications have been far reaching. But the story is also one of bold innovation, lessons learnt and ultimate success. This paper explores the short history of the steel box girder and reflects on how it has shaped the evolution of the popular modern bridge structures we see today. © Ian Firth.

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