Schauble S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena |
Klement K.,FLI |
Klement K.,University of Calgary |
Marthandan S.,FLI |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Primary human fibroblasts in tissue culture undergo a limited number of cell divisions before entering a non-replicative "senescent" state. At early population doublings (PD), fibroblasts are proliferation-competent displaying exponential growth. During further cell passaging, an increasing number of cells become cell cycle arrested and finally senescent. This transition from proliferating to senescent cells is driven by a number of endogenous and exogenous stress factors. Here, we have developed a new quantitative model for the stepwise transition from proliferating human fibroblasts (P) via reversibly cell cycle arrested (C) to irreversibly arrested senescent cells (S). In this model, the transition from P to C and to S is driven by a stress function γ and a cellular stress response function F which describes the time-delayed cellular response to experimentally induced irradiation stress. The application of this model based on senescence marker quantification at the single-cell level allowed to discriminate between the cellular states P, C, and S and delivers the transition rates between the P, C and S states for different human fibroblast cell types. Model-derived quantification unexpectedly revealed significant differences in the stress response of different fibroblast cell lines. Evaluating marker specificity, we found that SA-β-Gal is a good quantitative marker for cellular senescence in WI-38 and BJ cells, however much less so in MRC-5 cells. Furthermore we found that WI-38 cells are more sensitive to stress than BJ and MRC-5 cells. Thus, the explicit separation of stress induction from the cellular stress response, and the differentiation between three cellular states P, C and S allows for the first time to quantitatively assess the response of primary human fibroblasts towards endogenous and exogenous stress during cellular ageing. © 2012 Schäuble et al.
Diekmann S.,FLI |
Physics of Life Reviews | Year: 2014
Isolation and preparation of proteins of higher organisms often is a tedious task. In the case of success, the properties of these proteins and their interactions with other proteins can be studied in vitro. If however, these proteins are modified in the cell in order to gain or change function, this is non-trivial to correctly realise in vitro. When, furthermore, the cellular function requires the interplay of more than one or two proteins, in vitro experiments for the analysis of this situation soon become complex. Instead, we thus try to obtain information on the molecular properties of proteins in the living cell. Then, the cell takes care of correct protein folding and modification. A series of molecular techniques are, and new ones become, available which allow for measuring molecular protein properties in the living cell, offering information on concentration (FCS), dynamics (FCS, RICS, FRAP), location (PALM, STED), interactions (F3H, FCCS) and protein proximities (FRET, BRET, FLIM, BiFC). Here, these techniques are presented with their advantages and drawbacks, with examples from our current kinetochore research. The review is supposed to give orientation to researchers planning to enter the field, and inform which techniques help us to gain molecular information on a multi-protein complex. We show that the field of cellular imaging is in a phase of transition: in the future, an increasing amount of physico-chemical data can be determined in the living cell. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.