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Damoiseaux J.,Maastricht University | Andrade L.E.,University of Sao Paulo | Andrade L.E.,Fleury Medicine and Health Laboratories | Fritzler M.J.,University of Calgary | Shoenfeld Y.,The Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmunity Reviews

At the 12th International Workshop on Autoantibodies and Autoimmunity (IWAA), organized in August 2014 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, more than 300 autoimmunologists gathered to discuss the status of many novel autoantibodies in clinical practice, and to envisage additional value of autoantibodies in terms of prediction, prognosis and prevention of autoimmune diseases. Two separate workshops were dedicated to standardization and harmonization of autoantibody testing and nomenclature: International Autoantibody Standardization (IAS) and International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP). It was apparent to all in attendance that the discovery and elucidation of novel autoantibodies did not slow down, but that multiple challenges lay ahead of us in order to apply these discoveries to effective and efficient clinical practice. Importantly, this requires optimal bidirectional communication between clinicians and laboratory specialists, as well as close collaboration with the diagnostic industry. This paper is a report on the 12th IWAA in combination with a review of the recent developments in the field of autoantibodies. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Keppeke G.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Nunes E.,University of Sao Paulo | Ferraz M.L.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Silva E.A.B.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.

Background: A novel pattern in the indirect immunofluorescence antinuclear antibody assay on HEp-2 cells (IIF-HEp-2) characterized by cytoplasmic rods and rings (RR) was reported in HCV patients, but stringent disease specificity studies and longitudinal analysis are lacking. We investigated the clinical significance of anti-RR in an HCV cohort with up to a 12-month treatment follow up. Methodology/Results: 597 patients (342 HCV, 55 HCV/HIV, 200 non-HCV) were screened and titered for anti-RR. Serial samples were available from 78 of 176 treated and 27 of 166 untreated patients. Anti-RR was detected in 14.1% of 342 HCV patients, 9.1% of 55 HCV/HIV, 3.4% of 29 Hepatitis B, and none of 171 non-HCV (p<0.0001; HCV versus non-HCV). Anti-RR was present in 38% of 108 patients receiving interferon-α/ribavirin, but none in 26 receiving either interferon-α or ribavirin, or 166 untreated patients (p<0.0001). Other IIF-HEp-2 patterns were more frequently associated with interferon-α treatment alone (52.2%) as compared to interferon-α/ribavirin (25%), ribavirin alone (33.3%), and no therapy (26.5%). Anti-RR frequency was not associated with sex, age, ethnicity, HCV genotype or viral load. Anti-RR occurred only after initiation of treatment, beginning as early as 1 month (6%), but by the sixth month >47% tested positive for anti-RR. The anti-RR titer generally increased with sustained treatment and remained high in 53% of patients. After treatment, anti-RR titer was negative in 41%. Non-responders to HCV therapy were 77% in anti-RR-positive versus 64% in anti-RR-negative patients. Response to treatment was not associated with anti-RR titer or the dynamics of anti-RR reactivity during and after treatment. Conclusions: The exquisite association of anti-RR reactivity with combined interferon-α/ribavirin therapy in HCV patients represents a unique model for drug-induced autoantibody generation in humans as demonstrated by the fact that a significant fraction of patients who have anti-RR during therapy becomes anti-RR-negative after completion of therapy. © 2012 Keppeke et al. Source

Chan E.K.L.,University of Florida | Damoiseaux J.,Maastricht University | Carballo O.G.,University Institute of the Italian Hospital | Conrad K.,TU Dresden | And 10 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology

During the 12th International Workshop on Autoantibodies and Autoimmunity (IWAA) held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on August 28, 2014, a full day session was devoted to establishing a consensus on the nomenclature of staining patterns observed in the antinuclear antibody (ANA) indirect immunofluorescence test on HEp-2 cells. The current report summarizes the collective agreements with input from the host Brazilian and international communities that represented research, clinical, and diagnostic service laboratories. Patterns are categorized in three major groups (nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitotic patterns) and each pattern has been defined and described in detail. The consensus nomenclature and representative patterns are made available online at the International Consensus on Antinuclear antibody Pattern (ICAP) website (www.ANApatterns.org). To facilitate continuous improvement and input, specific comments on ICAP are encouraged and these will be discussed in subsequent ICAP meetings. The ultimate goal with the establishment of the ICAP is to promote harmonization and understanding of autoantibody test nomenclature, as well as interpretation guidelines for ANA testing, thereby optimizing usage in patient care. © 2015 Chan, Damoiseaux, Carballo, Conrad, de Melo Cruvinel, Francescantonio, Fritzler, Garcia-De La Torre, Herold, Mimori, Satoh, von Mühlen and Andrade. Source

Keppeke G.D.,University of Sao Paulo | John Calise S.,University of Florida | Chan E.K.L.,University of Florida | Andrade L.E.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Andrade L.E.C.,Fleury Medicine and Health Laboratories
World Journal of Gastroenterology

Chronic inflammation associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can lead to disabling liver diseases with progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the recent availability of more effective and less toxic therapeutic options, in most parts of the world the standard treatment consists of a weekly injection of pegylated interferon α (IFN-α) together with a daily dose of ribavirin. HCV patients frequently present circulating non-organ-specific autoantibodies demonstrating a variety of staining patterns in the indirect immunofluorescence assay for antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Between 20% to 40% of HCV patients treated with IFN-α and ribavirin develop autoantibodies showing a peculiar ANA pattern characterized as rods and rings (RR) structures. The aim of this article is to review the recent reports regarding RR structures and anti-rods/rings (anti-RR) autoantibody production by HCV patients after IFN-α/ribavirin treatment. Anti-RR autoantibodies first appear around the sixth month of treatment and reach a plateau around the twelfth month. After treatment completion, anti-RR titers decrease/disappear in half the patients and remain steady in the other half. Some studies have observed a higher frequency of anti-RR antibodies in relapsers, i.e. , patients in which circulating virus reappears after initially successful therapy. The main target of anti-RR autoantibodies in HCV patients is inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2), the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the guanosine triphosphate biosynthesis pathway. Ribavirin is a direct IMPDH2 inhibitor and is able to induce the formation of RR structures in vitro and in vivo . In conclusion, these observations led to the hypothesis that anti-RR autoantibody production is a human model of immunologic tolerance breakdown that allows us to explore the humoral autoimmune response from the beginning of the putative triggering event: exposure to ribavirin and interferon. © The Author(s) 2016. Source

John Calise S.,University of Florida | Keppeke G.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Andrade L.E.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Andrade L.E.C.,Fleury Medicine and Health Laboratories | Chan E.K.L.,University of Florida
Frontiers in Immunology

In recent years, autoantibodies targeting subcellular structures described as the rods and rings pattern in HEp-2 ANA have been presented as a unique case of autoantibody generation. These rod and ring structures (RR) are at least partially composed of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type 2 (IMPDH2), and their formation can be induced in vitro by several small-molecule inhibitors, including some IMPDH2 inhibitors. Autoantibodies targeting these relatively unknown structures have been almost exclusively observed in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients who have undergone treatment with pegylated interferon-α/ribavirin (IFN/RBV) combination therapy. To date, anti-RR antibodies have not been found in treatment-naïve HCV patients or in patients from any other disease groups, with few reported exceptions. Here, we describe recent advances in characterizing the RR structure and the strong association between anti-RR antibody response and HCV patients treated with IFN/RBV, detailing why anti-RR can be considered a human model of drug-induced autoantibody generation. © 2015 Calise, Keppeke, Andrade and Chan. Source

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