Readjustment of abdominal computed tomography protocols in a university hospital: Impact on radiation dose [Readequação de protocolos de exames de tomografia computadorizada de abdome em um hospital universitário: Impacto na dose de radiação]
Romano R.F.T.,Federal University of Sao Paulo |
Salvadori P.S.,Federal University of Sao Paulo |
Torres L.R.,Federal University of Sao Paulo |
Bretas E.A.S.,Federal University of Sao Paulo |
And 4 more authors.
Radiologia Brasileira | Year: 2015
Objective: To assess the reduction of estimated radiation dose in abdominal computed tomography following the implementation of new scan protocols on the basis of clinical suspicion and of adjusted images acquisition parameters. Materials and Methods: Retrospective and prospective review of reports on radiation dose from abdominal CT scans performed three months before (group A – 551 studies) and three months after (group B – 788 studies) implementation of new scan protocols proposed as a function of clinical indications. Also, the images acquisition parameters were adjusted to reduce the radiation dose at each scan phase. The groups were compared for mean number of acquisition phases, mean CTDIvol per phase, mean DLP per phase, and mean DLP per scan. Results: A significant reduction was observed for group B as regards all the analyzed aspects, as follows: 33.9%, 25.0%, 27.0% and 52.5%, respectively for number of acquisition phases, CTDIvol per phase, DLP per phase and DLP per scan (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The rational use of abdominal computed tomography scan phases based on the clinical suspicion in conjunction with the adjusted images acquisition parameters allows for a 50% reduction in the radiation dose from abdominal computed tomography scans. © Colégio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnóstico por Imagem. Source
Franco M.C.,University of Sao Paulo |
Nakao F.S.,University of Sao Paulo |
Rodrigues R.,Fleury Medicina e Saude |
Maluf-Filho F.,Institute Cancer Of Sao Paulo |
And 2 more authors.
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia | Year: 2015
Background - Upper gastrointestinal bleeding implies significant clinical and economic repercussions. The correct establishment of the latest therapies for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with reduced in-hospital mortality. The use of clinical pathways for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with shorter hospital stay and lower hospital costs. Objective - The primary objective is the development of a clinical care pathway for the management of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to be used in tertiary hospital. Methods -It was conducted an extensive literature review on the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, contained in the primary and secondary information sources. Results - The result is a clinical care pathway for the upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with evidence of recent bleeding, diagnosed by melena or hematemesis in the last 12 hours, who are admitted in the emergency rooms and intensive care units of tertiary hospitals. In this compact and understandable pathway, it is well demonstrated the management since the admission, with definition of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, passing through the initial clinical treatment, posterior guidance for endoscopic therapy, and referral to rescue therapies in cases of persistent or rebleeding. It was also included the care that must be taken before hospital discharge for all patients who recover from an episode of bleeding. Conclusion - The introduction of a clinical care pathway for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding may contribute to standardization of medical practices, decrease in waiting time for medications and services, length of hospital stay and costs. © 2015, IBEPEGE - Inst. Bras. Estudos Pesquisas Gastroent. All rights reserved. Source
Boyle B.,Laval University |
Fernandez L.,University of British Columbia |
Laroche J.,Laval University |
Kukavica-Ibrulj I.,Laval University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2012
Clinical "superbug" isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were previously observed to be resistant to several antibiotics, including polymyxin B, and/or to have a distinct, reproducible adaptive polymyxin resistance phenotype, identified by observing "skipped" wells (appearance of extra turbid wells) during broth microdilution testing. Here we report the complete assembled draft genome sequences of three such polymyxin resistant P. aeruginosa strains (9BR, 19BR, and 213BR). © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source
Souza Dias M.B.,CCIH Hospital Sirio Libanes |
Cavassin L.G.T.,CCIH Hospital Sirio Libanes |
Stempliuk V.,CCIH Hospital Sirio Libanes |
Xavier L.S.,CCIH Hospital Sirio Libanes |
And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2013
Background: Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) has been described as a cause of nosocomial outbreaks. We describe an outbreak of and identify risk factors for nosocomial BCC infections associated with intrinsically contaminated mannitol 3% solution. Methods: Urinary and bloodstream infection caused by BCC were identified in hospitalized patients who underwent urologic surgery and received intraoperative irrigation of 3% mannitol solution in February 2009. The investigation included retrospective chart review, case control study, procedural review, and culture of mannitol solution. Results: Seven BCC infections were identified. BCC isolates were recovered from blood and/or urine from patients and lots of mannitol in use during the outbreak period. Mannitol solution was produced by a compounding pharmacy. Receipt of larger volumes of contaminated solution was identified as a significant risk factor for infection (odds ratio, 1.5; P value <.05). BCC was also cultured in lots of mannitol in use in other hospitals. Conclusion: Manipulated mannitol solution is a potential source of infection. Contamination with paraben-degrading organisms can occur at the time of manufacture. Our findings suggest that contamination of mannitol at a compounding pharmacy occurred. Prompt communication to other hospitals and implementation of infection control measures were effective in avoiding further cases of infection. Copyright © 2013 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source
Braga W.M.T.,Federal University of Sao Paulo |
da Silva B.R.,Federal University of Sao Paulo |
de Carvalho A.C.,Federal University of Sao Paulo |
Maekawa Y.H.,Fleury Medicina e Saude |
And 4 more authors.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2014
Results: FOXP3 and CTLA4 presented a sixfold (p = 0.02) and 30-fold higher expression (p = 0.03), respectively, in MM patients than in controls. RORγt expression was similar in MM patients and controls. Median OS of MM patients was 16.8 (range 4.5–29.1) months, and international staging system was the only independent prognostic factor for patients survival.Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) development involves a series of genetic abnormalities and changes in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, favoring the growth of the tumor and failure of local immune control. T regulatory (Treg) cells play an important role in dampening anti-tumor immune responses while T-helper-17 (Th17) cells seem to be critical for the eradication of malignant cells. The aim of our study was to characterize the expression of Treg- and Th17-related genes in total myeloma BM samples to assess their role as biomarkers, prognostic factors, and possible therapeutic targets in this incurable disease.Methods: Expression of markers for Treg (FOXP3, CTLA4) and Th17 cells (RORγt) was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in BM aspirates of 46 MM patients, four patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, five solitary plasmacytomas, and five healthy BM donors. Gene expression was evaluated regarding an influence on the patients’ overall survival (OS).Conclusions: Overexpression of FOXP3 and CTLA4 in total BM samples suggests a local accumulation of immunosuppressive Tregs, the MM tumor environment, possibly dampening anti-tumor host immune responses. Therapeutic approaches targeting Treg cells and restoring local anti-tumor immunity may provide new treatment strategies for this incurable malignancy. © 2014, The Author(s). Source