von der Ohe P.C.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Dulio V.,INERIS |
Slobodnik J.,Environmental Institute |
De Deckere E.,University of Antwerp |
And 7 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011
Given the huge number of chemicals released into the environment and existing time and budget constraints, there is a need to prioritize chemicals for risk assessment and monitoring in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD). This study is the first to assess the risk of 500 organic substances based on observations in the four European river basins of the Elbe, Scheldt, Danube and Llobregat. A decision tree is introduced that first classifies chemicals into six categories depending on the information available, which allows water managers to focus on the next steps (e.g. derivation of Environmental Quality Standards (EQS), improvement of analytical methods, etc.). The priority within each category is then evaluated based on two indicators, the Frequency of Exceedance and the Extent of Exceedance of Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs). These two indictors are based on maximum environmental concentrations (MEC), rather than the commonly used statistically based averages (Predicted Effect Concentration, PEC), and compared to the lowest acute-based (PNECacute) or chronic-based thresholds (PNECchronic). For 56% of the compounds, PNECs were available from existing risk assessments, and the majority of these PNECs were derived from chronic toxicity data or simulated ecosystem studies (mesocosm) with rather low assessment factors. The limitations of this concept for risk assessment purposes are discussed. For the remainder, provisional PNECs (P-PNECs) were established from read-across models for acute toxicity to the standard test organisms Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas and Selenastrum capricornutum. On the one hand, the prioritization revealed that about three-quarter of the 44 substances with MEC/PNEC ratios above ten were pesticides. On the other hand, based on the monitoring data used in this study, no risk with regard to the water phase could be found for eight of the 41 priority substances, indicating a first success of the implementation of the WFD in the investigated river basins. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Manders A.M.M.,TNO |
Schaap M.,TNO |
Querol X.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research |
Albert M.F.M.A.,TNO |
And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010
The oceans are a major source for particles that play an important role in many atmospheric processes. In Europe sea salt may contribute significantly to particulate matter concentrations. We have compiled sodium concentration data as a tracer for sea salt for 89 sites in Europe to provide more insight in the distribution of sea salt across Europe. The annual average sea salt concentrations above land were estimated to range between 0.3 and almost 13 μg m-3. Maximum concentrations are found at the Irish coast. At coastal sites along the Atlantic and North Sea coast concentrations tend to be around 5 μg m-3. More inland locations up to about 300 km away from the coast tend to show concentrations between 2 and 5 μg m-3, whereas sites further away from the coast are characterized by lower concentrations. An analysis of the representativity of the data with respect to a long term average showed that the long average is associated with a standard deviation of around 15%. The compilation of observations provides an improved overview of sea salt concentrations in Europe as well as an improved basis for model validation. Verification of the results of the LOTOS-EUROS model learned that the model represents well the spatial variability of the observed sea salt concentrations very well. However, the absolute concentrations are significantly overestimated due to large uncertainties in the emission and dry deposition parameterizations. Using the high explained variability in the gradients across Europe, the bias-corrected modelled distribution serves as a best estimate of the sea salt distribution across Europe for 2005. © 2010.
Janssen S.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research |
Dumont G.,Belgian Interregional Environment Agency IRCEL |
Fierens F.,Belgian Interregional Environment Agency IRCEL |
Deutsch F.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research |
And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012
The spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations is a crucial parameter when the observed concentration levels are used in an air quality assessment. Spatial representativeness defines to what extent the monitoring data is meaningful and useful in a spatial context. Within this paper a generic and robust methodology is presented for the assessment of the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites. The methodology relies on a statistical approach that links annual averaged concentration levels with land use characteristics. The methodology is demonstrated for the monitoring sites in the Belgian telemetric air quality network and then applied to define a set of zones with a given confidence level. Within such a zone the concentrations deviate to a maximum percentage from the measured values at the monitoring sites. Furthermore, the relevance of spatial representativeness for model validation is addressed and the technique is illustrated for the validation of the results of the regional air quality model BelEUROS. In general, the overall improvement of the model validation by taking into account spatial representativeness can be quantified as in the order of 20%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
De Jonge M.,University of Antwerp |
Belpaire C.,Research Institute for Nature and Forest INBO |
Geeraerts C.,Research Institute for Nature and Forest INBO |
De Cooman W.,Flemish Environment Agency VMM |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012
The present study investigated to what extent accumulated metal levels in aquatic invertebrates can reflect environmental contamination and how these tissue levels can be related to alterations in macroinvertebrate communities in the dredged River Dommel. Metal accumulation was measured in translocated zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and resident Chironomidae. Furthermore, macroinvertebrate community composition was assessed. Our results indicated that trends of total metal concentrations in surface water of the Dommel in time are reflected well by metal levels in tissue of D. polymorpha. In contrast, sediment-bound metals were the most dominant exposure route for Chironomidae. Alterations in macroinvertebrate community composition were observed during dredging and significant relations between metal levels in invertebrate tissues and ecological responses were found. Our results demonstrated that metal accumulation in both zebra mussels and Chironomidae can be used as an integrated measure of metal bioavailability and to predict ecological effects of metal toxicity on macroinvertebrate communities. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nguyen H.H.,National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center |
Everaert G.,Ghent University |
Gabriels W.,Flemish Environment Agency VMM |
Hoang T.H.,Hanoi University of Science and Technology |
Goethals P.L.M.,Ghent University
Limnologica | Year: 2014
In this study we developed and applied a multimetric index to assess the biological water quality of rivers in Vietnam as a complementary tool to the traditional physical-chemical analysis. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected at 15 monitoring sites in the Cau river basin, Northern of Vietnam. Eighteen candidate metrics were tested for their range, stability, sensitivity and responsiveness to anthropogenic impacts. The MMI was calculated as the arithmetic mean of five metrics that were retained being the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) - Viet, total number of taxa, Margalef index, number of ephemeroptera, plecoptera and trichoptera (EPT) and percent of insects. The MMI is split up in five water quality classes, ranging from class one (high biological status) to class five (bad biological status). The study demonstrated that the multimetric approach is suitable for application in the Vietnamese national monitoring and assessment program. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.