Flanders Milk Control Center

Lier, Belgium

Flanders Milk Control Center

Lier, Belgium
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PubMed | M team and Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Unit, Ghent University and Flanders Milk Control Center
Type: | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder preparation were more likely to have S. cohnii-positive bulk milk. Herds in which flushing with hot water or steam of the milking cluster after having milked a cow with a (sub)clinical mastitis was applied, were less likely to yield S. simulans, S. haemolyticus, and S. cohnii in their bulk milk. Always wearing gloves during milking decreased the odds of having Staphylococcus devriesei-positive bulk milk. Tap water from the public drinking system used as drinking water increased the odds of yielding S. simulans in the bulk milk. In conclusion, CNS are highly prevalent in bulk milk and might originate from the environment for some species (we hypothesize this is true for S. equorum or S. cohnii), or from within the udder (e.g., for S. simulans). Studies collecting bulk milk and quarter milk samples at the same time along with environmental samples are needed to determine the exact origin of the different (subgroups of) CNS species present in bulk milk using strain-typing techniques.


Barberio A.,viale dellUniversita 10 | Barberio A.,University of Milan | Flaminio B.,viale dellUniversita 10 | De Vliegher S.,Ghent University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 isolates of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from milk of dairy cattle herds of Belgium, Germany, and Italy. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by the microbroth dilution method for the following antimicrobials: erythromycin, spiramycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, lincomycin, enrofloxacin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, florfenicol, and tiamulin. Macrolides, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, and enrofloxacin, were chosen because they represent antimicrobials families commonly used in several countries for treatment of M. bovis, and their MIC values in cattle population are reported in several studies, allowing a comparison with previous data. Doxycycline and tiamulin were selected to assess the susceptibility of M. bovis to new antimicrobials, because they are not registered in the European Union for the treatment of dairy cattle. Among the agents of the different antimicrobial classes, the macrolides showed the highest concentration to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90), all above the highest concentration tested: >8 μg/mL for erythromycin, >16 μg/mL for spiramycin, and >32 μg/mL for tilmicosin and tylosin. Also the MIC90 of lincomycin was above the highest concentration tested (>32 μg/mL), but the distribution of the MIC values was almost perfectly bimodal: 41 isolates had a MIC ≤0.5 μg/mL and 30 isolates >32 μg/mL. Oxytetracycline had a 2-fold higher concentration to inhibit 50% of isolates (2 vs. 0.5 μg/mL) and 1-fold higher MIC90 (4 vs. 2 μg/mL) than doxycycline. Enrofloxacin and florfenicol had both a MIC90 of 2 μg/mL, whereas tiamulin had a MIC90 of 0.5 μg/mL. Significant differences on the MIC values were found among the 3 countries for several antimicrobials: compared with Germany, Belgium and Italy showed significantly higher MIC for lincomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin, and lower for oxytetracycline and florfenicol. The Belgian isolates showed the lowest MIC for enrofloxacin compared with Germany and Italy. The MIC results obtained in our study suggest the presence of a high level of resistance of M. bovis isolates originating from milk to macrolides in all countries involved in this study. On the contrary, a low level of resistance was found against the antimicrobials that are not used in cattle, such as tiamulin and doxycycline, highlighting a possible link between antimicrobial treatments and development of resistance in the studied M. bovis population. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.


Laureyns J.,Ghent University | Piepers S.,Ghent University | Ribbens S.,Flemish Animal Health Service DGZ | Sarrazin S.,Ghent University | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to investigate the statistical association between herd bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) status based on bulk milk antibody detection and monthly bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) as a reflection of the udder health. A distinction was made between vaccinating and non-vaccinating herds via a questionnaire concerning BVD-vaccination. No significant difference in BMSCC was found between vaccinating (228,300 cells/ml; SD 180,019) and non-vaccinating (237,070 cells/ml; SD 77,900) herds. Non-vaccinating herds (n= 243) were selected, and the relationship between a single BVDV-antibody titre and the BMSCC of each herd over a 12-month observation period evaluated. For this purpose, the non-vaccinating herds were divided into five groups depending on bulk milk BVDV-antibody titres. Overall, no significant relationship between the antibody titre and the BMSCC was found. Still, when comparing the category with the lowest S/P ratio (essentially BVDV-naïve herds; BMSCC = 211,390 cells/ml) with the combined four other categories (BMSCC = 242,790 cells/ml), a significant difference in BMSSC was observed (P= 0.01). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Tolosa T.,Jimma University | Tolosa T.,Ghent University | Verbeke J.,Ghent University | Piepers S.,Ghent University | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2016

Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500. CFU/mL, 1,005 CFU/mL and 609,500 cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC > 10,000 CFU/mL, and/or CC > 100 CFU/mL, and/or SCC > 400,000 cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105 interviewees consuming local milk) whereas most milk for children is boiled (86% of 110 households with children consuming local milk). Most consumers are concerned about adulteration and milk borne diseases but not about antimicrobial residues. Educated consumers (secondary school or higher) were more likely to boil milk for own consumption, to be concerned about antimicrobial residues in milk, to be concerned about milk borne diseases and to be willing to pay more for milk with proven good quality compared to poorly educated consumers. We conclude that milk quality incentives should be introduced in Jimma, and investments should be made in knowledge transfer, training, milk collection systems and a central milk quality lab. © 2015.


De Visscher A.,Ghent University | Piepers S.,Ghent University | Supre K.,Flanders Milk Control Center | Haesebrouck F.,Ghent University | De Vliegher S.,Ghent University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from quarters with subclinical mastitis, teat apices, and the cows' environment. Virulence, ecology, epidemiological behavior, and effect on udder health vary between different CNS species. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus are frequently present in milk and have a more substantial effect on quarter milk somatic cell count than other species. Therefore, these species are considered the "more relevant" CNS. As species-specific factors associated with CNS intramammary infection (IMI) have not yet been identified and susceptibility for IMI differs between cows and quarters, this study aimed to identify predictors for CNS IMI at the cow and quarter level (some of them changing over time) with a specific focus on the aforementioned more relevant CNS. Precise data were available from a longitudinal study (3,052 observations from 344 quarters from 86 dairy cows belonging to 3 commercial dairy herds). All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level, and multivariable, multilevel logistic regression models taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data, were fit to study the likelihood of infection. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species from CNS IMI in older cows, whereas Staph. chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. simulans were the main species found in IMI in heifers. Quarters from heifers (as opposed to multiparous cows), from heifers and multiparous cows in third or fourth month in lactation (as opposed to early lactation, <60 d in milk), and with an increasing quarter milk SCC were more likely to be infected with the more relevant CNS species. Quarter milk SCC was identified as the sole statistically significant predictor for IMI with other CNS species, although the size of the effect was lower [odds ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) vs. 2.1 (1.8-2.5)] than the effect for IMI with the more relevant CNS. As a strong herd effect was present, studying herd-level predictors is warranted. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | Ghent University and Flanders Milk Control Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from quarters with subclinical mastitis, teat apices, and the cows environment. Virulence, ecology, epidemiological behavior, and effect on udder health vary between different CNS species. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus are frequently present in milk and have a more substantial effect on quarter milk somatic cell count than other species. Therefore, these species are considered the more relevant CNS. As species-specific factors associated with CNS intramammary infection (IMI) have not yet been identified and susceptibility for IMI differs between cows and quarters, this study aimed to identify predictors for CNS IMI at the cow and quarter level (some of them changing over time) with a specific focus on the aforementioned more relevant CNS. Precise data were available from a longitudinal study (3,052 observations from 344 quarters from 86 dairy cows belonging to 3 commercial dairy herds). All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level, and multivariable, multilevel logistic regression models taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data, were fit to study the likelihood of infection. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species from CNS IMI in older cows, whereas Staph. chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. simulans were the main species found in IMI in heifers. Quarters from heifers (as opposed to multiparous cows), from heifers and multiparous cows in third or fourth month in lactation (as opposed to early lactation, <60 d in milk), and with an increasing quarter milk SCC were more likely to be infected with the more relevant CNS species. Quarter milk SCC was identified as the sole statistically significant predictor for IMI with other CNS species, although the size of the effect was lower [odds ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) vs. 2.1 (1.8-2.5)] than the effect for IMI with the more relevant CNS. As a strong herd effect was present, studying herd-level predictors is warranted.


PubMed | Jimma University, Ghent University and Flanders Milk Control Center
Type: | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2016

Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105 interviewees consuming local milk) whereas most milk for children is boiled (86% of 110 households with children consuming local milk). Most consumers are concerned about adulteration and milk borne diseases but not about antimicrobial residues. Educated consumers (secondary school or higher) were more likely to boil milk for own consumption, to be concerned about antimicrobial residues in milk, to be concerned about milk borne diseases and to be willing to pay more for milk with proven good quality compared to poorly educated consumers. We conclude that milk quality incentives should be introduced in Jimma, and investments should be made in knowledge transfer, training, milk collection systems and a central milk quality lab.

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