Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Tolosa T.,Jimma University | Tolosa T.,Ghent University | Verbeke J.,Ghent University | Piepers S.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

The prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at the herd, cow and quarter level were studied using multilevel modelling in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. Forty-two herds, out of the 55 dairy farms located in Jimma (76%), were visited, a questionnaire was performed, and 635 quarters belonging to 176 lactating cows were screened to detect the presence of subclinical mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Sixty-two percent of the cows and 51% of the quarters were subclinically infected. Quarters from cows in later stage of lactation (>180. DIM) [opposed to early lactation (<90. DIM)] were more likely to be subclinically infected (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.44-3.99). Overall, quarters from cows milked by squeezing (as opposed to stripping) were less likely to be subclinically infected (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29-0.71), although quarters from cows with tick-infested udders were more likely to be subclinically infected when milked by squeezing (as opposed to stripping). The milking technique did not influence the likelihood of infection in cows without ticks on the udder. This study stresses the high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma and a lack of awareness of the existence of the disease among dairy farmers. Implementation of a mastitis prevention program adapted to the local needs, including a focus on milking technique, application of appropriate tick control measurements as well as fertility management, allowing cows to be dried-off at a more appropriate moment, are needed. To conclude, milking by squeezing instead of stripping, but not of cows with tick-infested udders, as well as fertility management could reduce the subclinical mastitis prevalence (and incidence) on the short term. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Tolosa T.,Jimma University | Tolosa T.,Ghent University | Verbeke J.,Ghent University | Ayana Z.,Jimma University | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ≤90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1.02-5.71)] were risk factors for quarters being blind. In conclusion, replacement of old cows, prevention of teat injuries/lesions, drying teats with 1 towel per cow before milking, improving fertility in order to shorten the lactation period, allowing (restricted) suckling, access to feed and water immediately after milking, and improving tick control could improve udder health in Jimma. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Koop G.,University Utrecht | De Visscher A.,Ghent University | Collar C.A.,University of California Cooperative Extension | Bacon D.A.C.,University of California Cooperative Extension | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most commonly isolated bacteria from goat milk, but they have often been identified with phenotypic methods, which may have resulted in misclassification. The aims of this paper were to assess the amount of misclassification of a phenotypic test for identifying CNS species from goat milk compared with transfer RNA intergenic spacer PCR (tDNA-PCR) followed by capillary electrophoresis, and to apply the tDNA-PCR technique on different capillary electrophoresis equipment. Milk samples were collected from 416 does in 5 Californian dairy goat herds on 3 occasions during lactation. In total, 219 CNS isolates were identified at the species level with tDNA-PCR and subjected to the API 20 Staph identification test kit (API Staph; bioMérieux, Durham, NC). If the same species was isolated multiple times from the same udder gland, only the first isolate was used for further analyses, resulting in 115 unique CNS isolates. According to the tDNA-PCR test, the most prevalent CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus caprae, and Staphylococcus simulans. Typeability with API staph was low (72%). Although the API Staph test was capable of identifying the majority of Staph. epidermidis and Staph. caprae isolates, sensitivity for identification of Staph. simulans was low. The true positive fraction was high for the 3 most prevalent species. It was concluded that the overall performance of API Staph in differentiating CNS species from goat milk was moderate to low, mainly because of the low typeability, and that genotypic methods such as tDNA-PCR are preferred. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Koop G.,University Utrecht | De Vliegher S.,Ghent University | De Visscher A.,Ghent University | Supre K.,Milk Control Center Flanders | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most commonly isolated bacteria from goat milk. The goal of this study was to explore and describe differences between CNS species in persistence of intramammary infection (IMI) and in effect on somatic cell count (SCC) and milk yield (MY). Milk samples were collected from 530 does from 5 Dutch dairy goat herds on 3 occasions during 1 lactation. Coagulase-negative staphylococci species were identified at the species level by transfer RNA-intergenic spacer PCR (tDNA-PCR) followed by capillary electrophoresis. The most prevalent CNS species were Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, but large differences were seen in species distribution between herds. Staphylococcus caprae and Staph. xylosus appeared to be more persistent than other species, but confidence intervals were overlapping. The effect of IMI caused by the 4 most prevalent CNS species on SCC and on MY was determined with linear regression models, and Staph. aureus and Corynebacterium bovis were included in the analyses as reference organisms. Most species were associated with a significantly higher SCC than noninfected udder halves, but the effect of CNS species on SCC was much smaller than the effect of Staph. aureus on SCC. We found a significant positive association between infection with Staph. caprae and MY. Intramammary infection caused by Staph. xylosus, on the other hand, had a negative association with milk yield, comparable to the effect of Staph. aureus, but these effects were not significantly different from zero. Intramammary infections with CNS species have a high prevalence in goats and are persistent, but have a limited effect on SCC compared with IMI with Staph. aureus. The effect of CNS species on MY differed between species, but differences were nonsignificant because limited numbers per species were available for analysis. Therefore, CNS species appear to behave as minor pathogens in goats, but larger studies are needed to give better estimates for the effect on MY. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source


Stevens M.,Ghent University | Piepers S.,Ghent University | Supre K.,Milk Control Center Flanders | Dewulf J.,Ghent University | de Vliegher S.,Ghent University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Discover hidden collaborations