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Lu Q.,University of Surrey | Gentile P.,University of Surrey | Tota A.,University of Surrey | Sorniotti A.,University of Surrey | And 3 more authors.
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing | Year: 2015

Fully electric vehicles with individually controlled drivetrains can provide a high degree of drivability and vehicle safety, all while increasing the cornering limit and the 'fun-to-drive' aspect. This paper investigates a new approach on how sideslip control can be integrated into a continuously active yaw rate controller to extend the limit of stable vehicle cornering and to allow sustained high values of sideslip angle. The controllability-related limitations of integrated yaw rate and sideslip control, together with its potential benefits, are discussed through the tools of multi-variable feedback control theory and non-linear phase-plane analysis. Two examples of integrated yaw rate and sideslip control systems are presented and their effectiveness is experimentally evaluated and demonstrated on a four-wheel-drive fully electric vehicle prototype. Results show that the integrated control system allows safe operation at the vehicle cornering limit at a specified sideslip angle independent of the tire-road friction conditions. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Omar N.,Erasmus University College Brussels | Omar N.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Van Den Bossche P.,Erasmus University College Brussels | Van Den Bossche P.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | And 5 more authors.
2011 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper represents a comprehensive comparison of three battery chemistries for use in plug-in battery electric vehicles: lithium iron phosphate oxide, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide and nickel cobalt aluminum oxide anodes. The battery characteristics at different temperature conditions have been investigated, using test procedures as defined in the standard IEC 62660-1/2 and introducing new load profiles. Main focus key parameters are the energy density, power capabilities, rate performances during charge and discharge as well as the energy efficiency, thermal behaviour and life cycle. The results indicate that the lithium iron phosphate based cells have good performances at low temperatures (such as down to -18° C). However, the situation regarding the nickel cobalt aluminum oxide and nickel manganese cobalt oxide anodes demonstrates less favorable performances, especially at low temperatures where the power and energy capabilities are considerably poor. In addition, the cycle life properties are discussed in order to evaluate the long-term performances, and battery parameters such as cost and thermal behaviors are compared. Finally, this study contains a new definition for the well-known Peukert relationship during the discharge phase. Furthermore, an adapted equation during the charge phase is presented based on the charge characteristics of the proposed batteries at different environmental conditions. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Iglesias M.,Instituto Tecnologico Of Aragon Itainnova | Echeverria I.,Instituto Tecnologico Of Aragon Itainnova | Arteche F.,Instituto Tecnologico Of Aragon Itainnova | Piedrafita J.,Instituto Tecnologico Of Aragon Itainnova | And 3 more authors.
IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility | Year: 2015

Electric vehicles are complex systems in which EMC must be approached in a significantly different way to the one in conventional cars. The presence of high power supplies assembled in a very small room together with signalling, control and communications devices brings about new issues related to EM disturbances and noise coupling that must be addressed in order to ensure a good performance of the systems. To achieve this, the understanding of the way noise is generated, propagates and couples within the system is critical so as to improve the immunity of the components and, eventually, the whole car. This paper presents the results of an EMC study focused on the electromagnetic interferences that take place in a fully electric vehicle. The outcome in this work is part of an EMC approach that involves an analysis of the emissions and coupling phenomena that may cause an impact on the system safety and performance. To perform this analysis, a campaign of experimental tests has been carried out on the vehicle. This task has been performed within the E-VECTOORC project (FP7-INFSO-284078), in collaboration with Jaguar Land Rover and Škoda. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Lu Q.,University of Surrey | Sorniotti A.,University of Surrey | Gruber P.,University of Surrey | Theunissen J.,University of Surrey | De Smet J.,Flanders DRIVE
Mechatronics | Year: 2016

This paper presents an H∞ torque-vectoring control formulation for a fully electric vehicle with four individually controlled electric motor drives. The design of the controller based on loop shaping and a state observer configuration is discussed, considering the effect of actuation dynamics. A gain scheduling of the controller parameters as a function of vehicle speed is implemented. The increased robustness of the H∞ controller with respect to a Proportional Integral controller is analyzed, including simulations with different tire parameters and vehicle inertial properties. Experimental results on a four-wheel-drive electric vehicle demonstrator with on-board electric drivetrains show that this control formulation does not need a feedforward contribution for providing the required cornering response in steady-state and transient conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Goggia T.,University of Surrey | Goggia T.,McLaren | Sorniotti A.,University of Surrey | De Novellis L.,University of Surrey | And 7 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2015

This paper presents an integral sliding mode (ISM) formulation for the torque-vectoring (TV) control of a fully electric vehicle. The performance of the controller is evaluated in steady-state and transient conditions, including the analysis of the controller performance degradation due to its real-world implementation. This potential issue, which is typical of sliding mode formulations, relates to the actuation delays caused by the drivetrain hardware configuration, signal discretization, and vehicle communication buses, which can provoke chattering and irregular control action. The controller is experimentally assessed on a prototype electric vehicle demonstrator under the worst-case conditions in terms of drivetrain layout and communication delays. The results show a significant enhancement of the controlled vehicle performance during all maneuvers. © 2014 IEEE. Source

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