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Goggia T.,University of Surrey | Goggia T.,McLaren | Sorniotti A.,University of Surrey | De Novellis L.,University of Surrey | And 7 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology | Year: 2015

This paper presents an integral sliding mode (ISM) formulation for the torque-vectoring (TV) control of a fully electric vehicle. The performance of the controller is evaluated in steady-state and transient conditions, including the analysis of the controller performance degradation due to its real-world implementation. This potential issue, which is typical of sliding mode formulations, relates to the actuation delays caused by the drivetrain hardware configuration, signal discretization, and vehicle communication buses, which can provoke chattering and irregular control action. The controller is experimentally assessed on a prototype electric vehicle demonstrator under the worst-case conditions in terms of drivetrain layout and communication delays. The results show a significant enhancement of the controlled vehicle performance during all maneuvers. © 2014 IEEE.


Lu Q.,University of Surrey | Sorniotti A.,University of Surrey | Gruber P.,University of Surrey | Theunissen J.,University of Surrey | De Smet J.,Flanders DRIVE
Mechatronics | Year: 2016

This paper presents an H∞ torque-vectoring control formulation for a fully electric vehicle with four individually controlled electric motor drives. The design of the controller based on loop shaping and a state observer configuration is discussed, considering the effect of actuation dynamics. A gain scheduling of the controller parameters as a function of vehicle speed is implemented. The increased robustness of the H∞ controller with respect to a Proportional Integral controller is analyzed, including simulations with different tire parameters and vehicle inertial properties. Experimental results on a four-wheel-drive electric vehicle demonstrator with on-board electric drivetrains show that this control formulation does not need a feedforward contribution for providing the required cornering response in steady-state and transient conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Mulder G.,Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek | Mulder G.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Omar N.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Omar N.,Erasmus University College Brussels | And 8 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2013

This article evaluates the behaviour of lithium-ion cells of several chemistries and one nickel-metal hydride cell for automotive applications like (plug-in) hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The evaluation is based on an enhanced test methodology that enables the comparison of cell behaviour. Tests for high power and high energy application have been integrated. The characterisation tests exist of four test methods. The tests make large differences visible between the cell species. The 5 C efficiency for example is between 75 and 90% while the cell temperature varies from 29 to 52 °C. The power density is 80 W/kg for the NiMH cell and lies between 330 and 3100 W/kg for the lithium-ion cells. The cell results have been brought into relation to the material properties, the shape, referring to existing literature. The test plan made it possible to make an initial division in the cells. It appears that the manufacturer's knowhow is more important than the general electrode classification to produce outstanding cells. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ivanov V.,TU Ilmenau | Shyrokau B.,TU Ilmenau | Savitski D.,TU Ilmenau | Orus J.,Instituto Tecnologico Of Aragon | And 4 more authors.
SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems | Year: 2014

The paper introduces the results of the development of anti-lock brake system (ABS) for full electric vehicle with individually controlled near-wheel motors. The braking functions in the target vehicle are realized with electro-hydraulic decoupled friction brake system and electric motors operating in a braking mode.The proposed ABS controller is based on the direct slip and velocity control and includes several main blocks for computing of predictive (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) brake torque, wheel slip observer, slip target adaptation, and the algorithm of brake blending between friction brakes and electric motors.The functionality of developed ABS has been investigated on the HIL test rig for straight-line braking manoeuvres on different surfaces with variation of initial velocity. The obtained experimental results have been compared with the operation of baseline algorithm of a hydraulic ABS and have demonstrated a marked effect in braking performance. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.


Savitski D.,TU Ilmenau | Ivanov V.,TU Ilmenau | Shyrokau B.,Technical University of Delft | De Smet J.,Flanders Drive | Theunissen J.,Flanders Drive
SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems | Year: 2015

Anti-lock braking functions of electric vehicles with individual wheel drive can be effectively realized through the operation of in-wheel or on-board motors in the pure regenerative mode or in the blending mode with conventional electro-hydraulic anti-lock braking system (ABS). The regenerative ABS has an advantage in simultaneous improvement of active safety, energy efficiency, and driving comfort. In scope of this topic, the presented work introduces results of experimental investigations on a pure electric ABS installed on an electric powered sport utility vehicle (SUV) test platform with individual switch reluctance on-board electric motors transferring torque to the each wheel through the single-speed gearbox and half-shaft. The study presents test results of the vehicle braking on inhomogeneous low-friction surface for the case of ABS operation with front electric motors. The performed tests confirm considerable reduction of braking distance and accurate tracking of the reference slip as compared with the vehicle braking without ABS. Hence the pure electric ABS can be considered as an efficient alternative to anti-lock braking systems with friction brakes only. © 2015 SAE International.


Zemouche A.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control | Zerrougui M.,Aix - Marseille University | Boulkroune B.,Flanders Drive | Rajamani R.,University of Minnesota | Zasadzinski M.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control
Proceedings of the American Control Conference | Year: 2016

This paper deals with observer-based controller design problem for discrete-time Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems with uncertain parameters. The proposed technique consists in designing an observer-based controller which stabilizes the LPV system, provided that the norm of the difference between the measured parameter and the real one does not exceed a tolerated maximum value. The particularity of the proposed design method, compared to some existing methods in the literature, is that it works on one systematic step, without any a priori choice of some observer-based controller parameters. The solution is formulated in terms of a single set of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Besides, a relaxation of the proposed design with respect to the uncertainty is provided. The proposed approach is compared with other similar stabilization approaches, through two numerical examples. © 2016 American Automatic Control Council (AACC).


Zemouche A.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control | Rajamani R.,University of Minnesota | Boulkroune B.,Flanders Drive | Rafaralahy H.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control | Zasadzinski M.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control
Proceedings of the American Control Conference | Year: 2016

This paper deals with observer design for nonlinear Lipschitz systems via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Based on some recent work on the LPV approach, less conservative results are provided. To obtain LMIs, algorithms are proposed to design, a priori, some suitable observer parameters that enhance the feasibility of the LMIs. Interesting guidelines and techniques are proposed to reduce the number of LMIs of the classical LPV approach, decrease the effect of huge values of Lipschitz constant, which is the weakness of the standard LMI approaches. © 2016 American Automatic Control Council (AACC).


Zemouche A.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control | Rajamani R.,University of Minnesota | Boulkroune B.,Flanders Drive | Rafaralahy H.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control | Zasadzinski M.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control
Proceedings of the American Control Conference | Year: 2016

This note deals with observer design for Lipschitz nonlinear systems via LMI. A new LMI condition is proposed to solve the problem of H∞ circle criterion observer design. This enhanced LMI is less conservative than those proposed in the literature for the same class of systems by using the same methodology. Indeed, thanks to a new and judicious use of the Young's relation, additional degree of freedoms are included in the LMI, contrarily to some recent results, which turn to be particular cases of what we proposed in this paper. This additional decision variables allow to improve the feasibility of the proposed LMI. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. © 2016 American Automatic Control Council (AACC).


Van De Weyenberg I.,Flanders DRIVE | Campestrini P.,Flanders DRIVE
16th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM 2014 | Year: 2014

Two preformed foam types (XPS and PMI) and one injected 2C-PUR foam have been evaluated on their reinforcing effect in metal profiles based on bending and impact tests. Surprisingly, the PMI foam showed significantly higher energy absorption-to-weight ratios for the low-density variant compared to the high-density variant. Due to the rather low density of the XPS foam, this material had no effect on the mechanical properties of the metal profiles. Furthermore, the filling degree of the injected foam appeared to have a significant positive effect on energy absorption during impact.


Mulder G.,Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek | Omar N.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Omar N.,Erasmus University College Brussels | Pauwels S.,Flanders DRIVE | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

This article evaluates the methods to characterise the behaviour of lithium ion cells of several chemistries and a nickel metal hydride cell for automotive applications like (plug-in) hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles. Although existing characterisation test methods are used, it was also indicated to combine test methods in order to speed up the test time and to create an improved comparability of the test results. Also, the existing capacity tests ignore that cells can be charged at several current rates. However, this is of interest for, e.g. fast charging and regenerative braking. Tests for high power and high energy application have been integrated in the enhanced method. The article explains the rationale to ameliorate the test methods. The test plan should make it possible to make an initial division in a group of cells purchased from several suppliers. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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