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Durham, NC, United States

Correia-Ledo D.,University of Montreal | Gibson K.F.,University of Strathclyde | Dhawan A.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Dhawan A.,Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

The increasing popularity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor design based on nanotriangle or nanohole arrays, and the possibility to manufacture substrates at the transition between these plasmonic substrates, makes them ideal candidates for the establishment of structure-property relationships. This work features near diffraction-limited Raman images and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations of nanotriangle and nanohole array substrates, which clearly demonstrate that the localization of the hot spot on these SERS substrates is significantly influenced by the ratio of diameter/periodicity (D/P). The experimental and simulation data reveal that the hot spots are located around nanotriangles (D/P = 1), characteristic of localized SPR. Decreasing the D/P ratio to 0.75-0.7 led to the creation of nanohole arrays, which promoted the excitation of a propagating surface plasmon (SP) delocalized over the metal network. The optimal SERS intensity was consistently achieved at this transition from nanotriangles to nanoholes, for every periodicity (650 nm to 1.5 μm) and excitation wavelength (633 and 785 nm) investigated, despite the presence or absence of a plasmonic band near the laser excitation. Further decreasing the D/P ratio led to excitation of a localized SP located around the rim of nanohole arrays for D/P of 0.5-0.6, in agreement with previous reports. In addition, this manuscript provides the first evidence that the hot spots are positioned inside the hole for D/P of 0.4, with the center being the region of highest electric field and Raman intensity. The compelling experimental evidence and FDTD simulations offer an overall understanding of the plasmonic properties of nanohole arrays as SERS and SPR sensors, which is of significant value in advancing the diversity of applications from such surfaces. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Vo-Dinh T.,Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics | Vo-Dinh T.,Duke University | Liu Y.,Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics | Liu Y.,Duke University | And 14 more authors.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology | Year: 2015

This article provides an overview of recent developments and applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanosensors and nanoreporters in our laboratory for use in biochemical monitoring, medical diagnostics, and therapy. The design and fabrication of different types of plasmonics-active nanostructures are discussed. The SERS nanosensors can be used in various applications including pH sensing, protein detection, and gene diagnostics. For DNA detection the 'Molecular Sentinel' nanoprobe can be used as a homogenous bioassay in solution or on a chip platform. Gold nanostars provide an excellent multi-modality theranostic platform, combining Raman and SERS with two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging as well as photodynamic therapy (PDT), and photothermal therapy (PTT). Plasmonics-enhanced and optically modulated delivery of nanostars into brain tumor in live animals was demonstrated; photothermal treatment of tumor vasculature may induce inflammasome activation, thus increasing the permeability of the blood brain-tumor barrier. The imaging method using TPL of gold nanostars provides an unprecedented spatial selectivity for enhanced targeted nanostar delivery to cortical tumor tissue. A quintuple-modality nanoreporter based on gold nanostars for SERS, TPL, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and PTT has recently been developed. The possibility of combining spectral selectivity and high sensitivity of the SERS process with the inherent molecular specificity of bioreceptor-based nanoprobes provides a unique multiplex and selective diagnostic modality. Several examples of optical detection using SERS in combination with other detection and treatment modalities are discussed to illustrate the usefulness and potential of SERS nanosensors and nanoreporters for medical applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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