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São Paulo, Brazil

Farias T.H.V.,Sao Paulo State University | Levy-Pereira N.,Sao Paulo State University | Alves L.D.O.,Sao Paulo State University | Dias D.D.C.,Fishery Institute APTA SAA | And 5 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology

The utilization of probiotic bacteria have been widely tested and applied in intestinal microflora modulation, through competitive exclusion of the pathogenic bacteria. Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative bacterium, responsible for fish outbreaks in farms around the world, and is one of the major loss causes for neotropical fish farmers. 660 pacus (67±7g) were distributed in 20 tanks (n=33), constituting five groups (four tanks for each treatment): four groups were fed with different levels (2, 4, 8 and 16gkg-1) of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis (1:1, 108CFUg-1), and the fifth group was fed with a control diet (without probiotic). Pacus fed with probiotic showed increment in the ROS production associated to elevated neutrophil and monocyte counts and increased phagocytic activity without affecting the growth parameters. Probiotic fed fish presented higher survival rates, subjected to an i.p. challenge with 108CFUmL-1 of A. hydrophila. The results demonstrated a dose response effect and the ideal level of the probiotic (Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, 1:1, 108CFUg-1) in P. mesopotamicus diets was around 8gkg-1, as the highest survival rates and immunological responses were found in groups of fish fed with this diet. In addition, too much probiotic should be avoided, as pacus fed diet with 16gkg-1 showed partial suppression of these responses. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Cordeiro D.,University of Sao Paulo | Da Rocha G.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Onaka E.M.,Fishery Institute APTA SAA | Cappelini L.T.D.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies

In this study, the concentrations of the natural hormone 17β-ethinylesiol and the synthetic hormones levonorgestrel and 17 -ethylestradiol were determined in the water of So José do Rio Preto Municipal Dam (SP, Brazil). The SPE method was used to extract the hormones and HPLC/FLU/DAD was used to measure their concentrations. The method was validated according to Resolution-RE 899/2003 from the National Sanitary Vigilance Agency (ANVISA) for bioanalytical methods. The detection limits were 25.0, 100.0, and 50.0ngL-1 for 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-ethinylesiol, and levonorgestrel, respectively. The water samples from the dam were collected near the sewage release point and the city's water supply intake point. The sample analysis did not indicate the presence of the hormones under study, considering the detection limit of the method employed. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Dias D.C.,Aquaculture Center | Leonardo A.F.G.,Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira APTA | Tachibana L.,Fishery Institute APTA SAA | Correa C.F.,Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira APTA | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ichthyology

Summary: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of probiotics prepared from Bacillus subtilis (strain C-3102-Calsporin ®; Calpis, Tokyo, Japan) as a dietary supplement on several reproductive aspects of female 'matrinxã'(Brycon amazonicus), including hematological parameters, immunological characteristics and total lipid concentrations in muscle and liver tissue. The broodstock were kept in two ponds of 600m 2, at a density of 50 fish per pond, from March to November 2008. The fish were divided into two treatment groups: untreated control fish (T1), and fish fed with 10g of probiotics per kg of ration (T2). Fish were fed a diet containing 32% crude protein (CP), 7% crude fat (CF), and 6.5% ether extract (EE) twice daily at a rate of 1% of the total biomass per day during the coldest months (May through August) and 3% during the warm season (March, April and September through November). During the reproductive period, 20 individuals from each treatment group were selected for the experiments; two doses of crude carp pituitary extract were given to females in 10-h intervals, and one dose was given to the males at the same time the females were given the second dose. A total of 20 fish were used for the hematological analyses. After anesthetization, blood samples were withdrawn by caudal puncture to determine the total number of cells, differential and total leukocyte counts, thrombocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin rate and plasma cortisol and glucose levels. The hematimetric index mean corpuscular volume (VCM) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MHCM) were calculated. Ten other 'matrinxãs' from the same groups were used to assess macrophage phagocytic activity and lipid levels. The results showed that females fed a probiotics-supplemented diet exhibited an increase in numbers of oocytes and, consequently, had higher rates of fertilization and hatching of larvae. Probiotic-treated fish also exhibited a significant increase in the phagocytic activity of macrophages, indicating an improvement in the immune system of breeders. Hematologic parameters were different in comparison to the time-zero group, and plasma cortisol and glucose levels were higher in the females. The total lipids levels in muscle and liver tissue were lower in B. amazonicus that received feed supplemented with probiotics. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin. Source

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