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Miles A.K.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | Tan Y.P.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | Tan M.K.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Donovan N.J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 2 more authors.
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

The occurrence of pathogenic and endophytic species of Phyllosticta on cultivated Citrus in Australia was investigated by DNA sequence analysis of specimens held in plant pathology herbaria and culture collections. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2), and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) gene of 41 Phyllosticta-like isolates from Citrus were compared to those sequences from the type specimens of Phyllosticta recorded from around the world. Phylogenetic analysis resolved all the sequences of Australian accessions into two major clades. One clade corresponded to P. citricarpa, which causes citrus black spot disease. The other clade contained P. capitalensis, which is a known endophyte of Citrus and many other plant species. All included herbarium accessions previously designated as Guignardia mangiferae are now designated P. capitalensis. No Australian isolates were identified as the newly described pathogens of citrus P. citriasiana or P. citrichinaensis, or the endophytes Guignarida mangiferae, P. brazilianiae, or P. citribraziliensis. © 2013 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.


Bell L.W.,CSIRO | Lawrence J.,CSIRO | Johnson B.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | Whitbread A.,University of Gottingen
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2012

Biomass production, soil water extraction, and water-use efficiency (WUE, kg dry matter (DM)/ha.mm growing-season water use) of tropical, summer-growing and temperate, winter-growing forage legumes suited to short-term rotations with crops were compared over several growing seasons in southern Queensland. Tropical legumes lablab (Lablab purpureus cvv. Highworth and Endurance), burgundy bean (Macroptillium bracteatum cvv. Cardarga/Juanita mix), and butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea cv. Milgara) were compared with forage sorghum (Sorghum spp. cv. Silk and cv. Sugargraze). Temperate legumes snail medic (Medicago scutellata cv. Sava), lucerne (Medicago sativa cv. UQL-1), sulla (Hedysarum coronarium cv. Wilpena), and purple vetch (Vicia benghalensis cv. Popany) were compared with forage oats (Avena sativa cv. Taipan/Genie). Production and WUE of winter legumes was highly variable, with oats producing more biomass than the legumes, except in 2009 where oat establishment was poor. In years with good establishment, WUE of oats (14-28kg DM/ha.mm), snail medic (13-25kg DM/ha.mm), and sulla (12-20kg DM/ha.mm) were similar, but the production and WUE of vetch were generally lower (6-14kg DM/ha.mm). Sulla dried the soil profile by 60-100mm more than the annual species, but less than lucerne. Summer legumes, burgundy bean, and lablab performed similarly, although always produced less biomass and had lower WUE than forage sorghum. Lucerne extracted more water and maintained a drier profile by 70-150mm and had lower WUE (<10kg DM/ha.mm) than burgundy bean or lablab (9-30kg DM/ha.mm). Of the legumes tested, burgundy bean and lablab seem the most likely to be profitably integrated into subtropical cropping systems. Further evidence of the rotational benefits provided by these legumes is required before they will be favoured over the perceived reliability and higher productivity of annual grass-type forages. Journal compilation © CSIRO 2012.


Dennien S.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | Henderson C.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | Langenbaker R.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | Wolfenden R.,Australian Sweetpotato Growers Inc | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

The Australian Sweetpotato Growers Association partnered researchers from Agri-Science Queensland (with co-funding from Horticulture Australia Limited) to identify new, high performing sweetpotato cultivars with diverse colours and tastes. The project evaluated a mix of purple, red, orange and white skin and flesh, tailored for Australian growers and consumers. Australia's sweetpotato market currently relies on one gold cultivar for 90% of national production. Major retailers were requesting a reliable supply of quality sweetpotatoes in emerging categories such as red or white skin or purple flesh. To identify suitable cultivars, over 40 new sweetpotato cultivars were virus tested, and extensively evaluated in multiple experiments in Queensland and northern New South Wales. Larger-scale plantings by growers, using standard agronomy, provided additional performance feedback under commercial conditions. In partnership with growers and wholesalers, cultivars were evaluated in field and laboratory for desired characteristics such as shape, size range, skin and flesh colour, estimates of productivity and suitability for commercial production, cooking characteristics and taste. New high performing gold cultivars had better soil insect and nematode tolerance than the current cultivars. The new colours offered diverse health-related opportunities for consumers, more anthocyanins in purple-fleshed cultivars; higher beta carotene content in new gold fleshed cultivars; and potentially lower GI in white-fleshed cultivars. To enhance adoption, the industry/research partnership will tailor agronomic guidelines to maximise on-farm performance and identify niche marketing pathways for each of the cultivars. Increased consumption of this versatile vegetable will drive sweetpotato industry development and expansion into the future. © ISHS.


Fox G.P.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | Fox G.P.,University of Queensland | Martin A.,University of Southern Queensland | Kelly A.M.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | And 4 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Two key quality traits in milling wheat are flour yield (FY) and water absorption (WA). Ideally, breeders would prefer to use markers to select promising lines rather than time consuming rheology tests. In this study, we measured FY and WA on a wheat mapping population (Lang/QT8766) of 162 individuals grown in two replicated field experiments at three locations over 2 years. We also carried out near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) predictions on the grain for these traits to see if NIRS phenotypic data could provide useful mapping results when compared to the reference phenotypic data. Several common QTLs were identified for FY and WA by both sets of data. The QTL on chromosome 4D was a consistently recurring QTL region for both traits. The QTL on chromosome 2A was positively linked to protein content which was supported by genetic correlation data. The results also indicated it was possible to obtain useful phenotypic data for mapping FY and WA using NIRS data. This would save time and costs as NIRS is quicker and cheaper than current rheology methods. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia.


Daglish G.J.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | Daglish G.J.,Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center | Nayak M.K.,Fisheries and Forestry Queensland | Nayak M.K.,Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2014

The inheritance and fitness of phosphine resistance was investigated in an Australian strain of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), as well as its prevalence in eastern Australia. This type of knowledge may provide insights in to the development of phosphine resistance in this species with the potential for better management. This strain was 12.2×resistant at the LC50 level based on results for adults exposed for 20h. Data from the testing of F1 adults from the reciprocal crosses (R;Sand S R showed that resistance was autosomal and inherited as an incompletely recessive trait with a degree of dominance of -0.88. The dose-response data for the F1×S and F1×R test crosses, and the F2 progeny were compared with predicted dose-response assuming monogenic recessive inheritance, and the results were consistent with resistance being conferred by one major gene. There was no evidence of fitness cost based on the frequency of susceptible phenotypes in hybridized populations that were reared for seven generations without exposure to phosphine. Lack of fitness cost suggests that resistant alleles will tend to persist in field populations that have undergone selection even if selection pressure is removed. Discriminating dose tests on 107 population samples collected from farms from 2006 to 2010 show that populations containing insects with the weak resistant phenotype are common in eastern Australia, although the frequency of resistant phenotypes within samples was typically low. The prevalence of resistance is a warning that this species has been subject to considerable selection pressure and that effective resistance management practices are needed to address this problem. © 2014.

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