Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO

Santos, Brazil

Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO

Santos, Brazil
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Ramires M.,Santa Cecilia University | Ramires M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Rotundo M.M.,Santa Cecilia University | Rotundo M.M.,Institute Pesca | And 3 more authors.
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2012

This study was conducted in three communities of artisanal fishermen from Ilhabela, located on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to analyze the preferences, taboos and medicinal indications of fish and thus representing one of the interactions of fishermen with fish stocks. Data collection was conducted through interviews with the aid of semi-structured questionnaires. We interviewed 25 families, 29 residents in three communities studied during our fieldwork for data collection. Five interviews were done in Jabaquara Beach, 6 in Fome Beach and 14 Serraria Beach. During the interviews, 18 species were cited as preferred for consumption, 11 species considered to be taboo (food prohibited), 5 species were cited as avoided as food, and 4 species indicated in case of illness. The families of fishermen prefer to consume finfish and do not consume puffer fish, the latter probably due to its toxic characteristic. Fish such as little tunny, largehead hairtail, shark, serra mackerel and king mackerel are avoided by unhealthy people and in cases of wounds, inflammation, pregnancy and postpartum. Other fish, such as sea chubs, silver porgy, bluefish and grouper are reported as medicinal in these situations. Aspects related to fish consumption are part of the knowledge of fishermen and their families and provide a wealth of information that combined to biological information is useful for the conservation of fishery resources. Data such as those presented in this study, regarding the use of aquatic animals for treatment of diseases, could serve as a basis for future studies on substances that contain active elements in curing diseases.

Begossi A.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Begossi A.,University of Campinas | Begossi A.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Salivonchyk S.V.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2011

In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceio in Alagoas State, and Porto do Saupe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at Sao Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. © 2011 Begossi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Clauzet M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Clauzet M.,University of Campinas | And 7 more authors.
Conservation and Society | Year: 2011

Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT) is here applied to analyse the foraging behaviour of Brazilian artisanal fishers of the Atlantic coast (Itacuruçá and São Paulo Bagre villages) and of the inland Amazonian region (Jarauá and Ebenezer villages). Two OFT predictions are tested. Hypotheis1: A fisher who travels to more distant sites should return with more fish, and Hypothesis 2: The further a fisher goes, the longer s/he should stay fishing in a patch. OFT did not explain fishers' behaviour (non-significant regressions for coastal villages) or explain it in specific seasons (low water season for one Amazonian village: H1 r 2=24.1; H2 r 2=37.2) and in specific habitats (e.g., lakes and backwaters in Jarauá village, Lakes: H1 r 2=13.5; H2 r 2=24.0; Backwaters: H1 r 2=34.4; H2 r 2=46.5). The findings can indicate areas or seasons that are under higher fishing pressure, when fishers try to get the best out of a situation without any concern about resource conservation. By knowing the variables that infl uence fishers' decision-making processes, management initiatives may be more fine-tuned to the local reality and are thus more likely to succeed. Copyright: © Lopes et al. 2011.

Hallwass G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Hallwass G.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Identifying the factors that influence the amount of fish caught, and thus the fishers' income, is important for proposing or improving management plans. Some of these factors influencing fishing rewards may be related to fishers' behavior, which is driven by economic motivations. Therefore, those management rules that have less of an impact on fishers' income could achieve better acceptance and compliance from fishers. We analyzed the relative influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors on fish catches (biomass) in fishing communities of a large tropical river. We then used the results from this analysis to propose alternative management scenarios in which we predicted potential fishers' compliance (high, moderate and low) based on the extent to which management proposals would affect fish catches and fishers' income. We used a General Linear Model (GLM) to analyze the influence of environmental (fishing community, season and habitat) and socioeconomic factors (number of fishers in the crew, time spent fishing, fishing gear used, type of canoe, distance traveled to fishing grounds) on fish catches (dependent variable) in 572 fishing trips by small-scale fishers in the Lower Tocantins River, Brazilian Amazon. According to the GLM, all factors together accounted for 43% of the variation in the biomass of the fish that were caught. The behaviors of fishers' that are linked to fishing effort, such as time spent fishing (42% of the total explained by GLM), distance traveled to the fishing ground (12%) and number of fishers (10%), were all positively related to the biomass of fish caught and could explain most of the variation on it. The environmental factor of the fishing habitat accounted for 10% of the variation in fish caught. These results, when applied to management scenarios, indicated that some combinations of the management measures, such as selected lakes as no-take areas, restrictions on the use of gillnets (especially during the high-water season) and individual quotas larger than fishers' usual catches, would most likely have less impact on fishers' income. The proposed scenarios help to identify feasible management options, which could promote the conservation of fish, potentially achieving higher fishers' compliance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Lopes P.F.M.,University of Campinas | Silvano R.A.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management | Year: 2011

This study uses the socio-ecological resilience concept to compare two categories of fisheries co-management in Brazil: Extractive and Sustainable Development Reserves. Ecological resilience was estimated by the indicators: reserve areas, human density and the existence of buffer zones around the reserves. Indicators for social-resilience were grouped in two categories: flexibility (assessed by livelihood diversification and resources exploited) and capacity to organize (assessed by local/governrnenta1 demand for reserve creation, existence of fishing management rules or management plans, participation in the decision-making process and existence of self-monitoring). Amazonian reserves are larger, have buffer zones and people depend on a broader range of natural resources compared to those on the coast. However, the inhabitants of coastal reserves can rely on ecotourism and jobs outside the reserves, which may reduce local fishing pressure. Both regions have reserves created using top-down initiatives as well as those created from local demands. Yet, participation in decision making is not necessarily related to the origin of demand and the level of local involvement can be limited in either case. Unless co-management is followed by adaptive management, increased local participation of people in management and the diversification of economic sources. its benefit to resilience is limited. © 2011 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Hallwass G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Hallwass G.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Silvano R.A.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Silvano R.A.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management | Year: 2015

Tropical fisheries, which are considered multi-species, may show selectiveness. We analyzed the degree of selectivity of fish catches in 46 sites along the Amazon basin through the percentage of biomass corresponding to the most caught fish species. Amazonian fisheries were considered moderately selective, as 54% of the sites directed more than a quarter of fishing effort to one fish species and in 87% of the sites more than half the fishing effort was directed to five fish species. Commercial fisheries were more selective than subsistence fisheries. Eleven fish species (nine of them migratory) have received more fishing pressure in the studied Amazonian regions and the catch composition differed among regions. We thus recommend that fisheries management in the Amazon basin should distribute fishing effort among more fish species; incorporate the particularities of commercial and subsistence fisheries; evaluate fishing effects on ecosystem services; and consider the biological characteristics of preferred fish. © 2015 University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Silvano R.A.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Silvano R.A.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Hallwass G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Hallwass G.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | And 10 more authors.
Ecosystems | Year: 2014

Empirical data are needed to show the efficacy of co-management, which is regarded as a promising approach to achieve conservation goals. In this study, we addressed the potential influence of fisheries co-management to increase fish abundance and fishing yields in the lower Tocantins River Basin (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large dam. We analyzed 590 fish landings (6.7 t of fish) from five fishing villages and 48 fish samples obtained using gillnets (10,378 fish from 101 species) in 12 floodplain lakes in four regions: two with incipient co-management and two unmanaged. The fish species richness did not differ among the regions, but the lakes in the regions that were co-managed had higher fish abundance (biomass and number of individuals) and a higher mean proportion of fish reproducing during the high water season. Fishers had higher catches per unit of effort in the co-managed regions than fishers in the non-managed regions. These results were also influenced by geographic factors (distance and accessibility of lakes), as fish biomass was higher in lakes that were distant from the main river and from the main city in the region. Managers should thus consider strategic selection of the geographic locations of managed sites, even in remote areas. However, the fish biomass sampled in lakes was more related to region than to the lakes' geographical location. Therefore, co-management has at least partially contributed to increased fish abundance and fishing yields in the studied region, through the protection of an important fish habitat (lakes). We provide empirical evidence that co-management can contribute to the maintenance of fish abundance, sustainability of fisheries, and food security in large tropical rivers impacted by damming. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Ramires M.,Santa Cecilia University | Ramires M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Clauzet M.,Santa Cecilia University | Clauzet M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | And 3 more authors.
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2012

This article investigates the folk taxonomy of four artisanal fisheries communities in Ilhabela/SP. The local folk taxonomy shows how these fishermen identify, name and classify fish resources in the environment exploited by them. Forty-two fishermen from four different local communities of Ilhabela were interviewed through a structured questionnaire and photographs of fish species with occurrence for the southeast region of Brazil. Respondents identified the 24 species listed as 50 generic names and 27 binominal specific names, mainly related to aspects of fish species morphology such as color, shape and size. These fish were classified into eight groups according to local criteria related to the morphology, ecology and fishing forms associated with the capture of species. The morphological aspect was identified as the most used feature by respondents to name and classify local fish, followed by ecological aspects such as behavior, diet and habitat. The comparison of local criteria used for the groups was similar to the scientific taxonomy criteria, showing a detailed local ecological knowledge by this group of fishers.

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