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Begossi A.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Begossi A.,University of Campinas | Begossi A.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | Salivonchyk S.V.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine

In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceio in Alagoas State, and Porto do Saupe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at Sao Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. © 2011 Begossi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Lopes P.F.M.,University of Campinas | Silvano R.A.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management

This study uses the socio-ecological resilience concept to compare two categories of fisheries co-management in Brazil: Extractive and Sustainable Development Reserves. Ecological resilience was estimated by the indicators: reserve areas, human density and the existence of buffer zones around the reserves. Indicators for social-resilience were grouped in two categories: flexibility (assessed by livelihood diversification and resources exploited) and capacity to organize (assessed by local/governrnenta1 demand for reserve creation, existence of fishing management rules or management plans, participation in the decision-making process and existence of self-monitoring). Amazonian reserves are larger, have buffer zones and people depend on a broader range of natural resources compared to those on the coast. However, the inhabitants of coastal reserves can rely on ecotourism and jobs outside the reserves, which may reduce local fishing pressure. Both regions have reserves created using top-down initiatives as well as those created from local demands. Yet, participation in decision making is not necessarily related to the origin of demand and the level of local involvement can be limited in either case. Unless co-management is followed by adaptive management, increased local participation of people in management and the diversification of economic sources. its benefit to resilience is limited. © 2011 University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Source

Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Clauzet M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Clauzet M.,University of Campinas | And 7 more authors.
Conservation and Society

Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT) is here applied to analyse the foraging behaviour of Brazilian artisanal fishers of the Atlantic coast (Itacuruçá and São Paulo Bagre villages) and of the inland Amazonian region (Jarauá and Ebenezer villages). Two OFT predictions are tested. Hypotheis1: A fisher who travels to more distant sites should return with more fish, and Hypothesis 2: The further a fisher goes, the longer s/he should stay fishing in a patch. OFT did not explain fishers' behaviour (non-significant regressions for coastal villages) or explain it in specific seasons (low water season for one Amazonian village: H1 r 2=24.1; H2 r 2=37.2) and in specific habitats (e.g., lakes and backwaters in Jarauá village, Lakes: H1 r 2=13.5; H2 r 2=24.0; Backwaters: H1 r 2=34.4; H2 r 2=46.5). The findings can indicate areas or seasons that are under higher fishing pressure, when fishers try to get the best out of a situation without any concern about resource conservation. By knowing the variables that infl uence fishers' decision-making processes, management initiatives may be more fine-tuned to the local reality and are thus more likely to succeed. Copyright: © Lopes et al. 2011. Source

Hallwass G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Hallwass G.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management

Identifying the factors that influence the amount of fish caught, and thus the fishers' income, is important for proposing or improving management plans. Some of these factors influencing fishing rewards may be related to fishers' behavior, which is driven by economic motivations. Therefore, those management rules that have less of an impact on fishers' income could achieve better acceptance and compliance from fishers. We analyzed the relative influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors on fish catches (biomass) in fishing communities of a large tropical river. We then used the results from this analysis to propose alternative management scenarios in which we predicted potential fishers' compliance (high, moderate and low) based on the extent to which management proposals would affect fish catches and fishers' income. We used a General Linear Model (GLM) to analyze the influence of environmental (fishing community, season and habitat) and socioeconomic factors (number of fishers in the crew, time spent fishing, fishing gear used, type of canoe, distance traveled to fishing grounds) on fish catches (dependent variable) in 572 fishing trips by small-scale fishers in the Lower Tocantins River, Brazilian Amazon. According to the GLM, all factors together accounted for 43% of the variation in the biomass of the fish that were caught. The behaviors of fishers' that are linked to fishing effort, such as time spent fishing (42% of the total explained by GLM), distance traveled to the fishing ground (12%) and number of fishers (10%), were all positively related to the biomass of fish caught and could explain most of the variation on it. The environmental factor of the fishing habitat accounted for 10% of the variation in fish caught. These results, when applied to management scenarios, indicated that some combinations of the management measures, such as selected lakes as no-take areas, restrictions on the use of gillnets (especially during the high-water season) and individual quotas larger than fishers' usual catches, would most likely have less impact on fishers' income. The proposed scenarios help to identify feasible management options, which could promote the conservation of fish, potentially achieving higher fishers' compliance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ramires M.,Santa Cecilia University | Ramires M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | Clauzet M.,Santa Cecilia University | Clauzet M.,Fisheries and Food Institute FIFO | And 3 more authors.
Biota Neotropica

This article investigates the folk taxonomy of four artisanal fisheries communities in Ilhabela/SP. The local folk taxonomy shows how these fishermen identify, name and classify fish resources in the environment exploited by them. Forty-two fishermen from four different local communities of Ilhabela were interviewed through a structured questionnaire and photographs of fish species with occurrence for the southeast region of Brazil. Respondents identified the 24 species listed as 50 generic names and 27 binominal specific names, mainly related to aspects of fish species morphology such as color, shape and size. These fish were classified into eight groups according to local criteria related to the morphology, ecology and fishing forms associated with the capture of species. The morphological aspect was identified as the most used feature by respondents to name and classify local fish, followed by ecological aspects such as behavior, diet and habitat. The comparison of local criteria used for the groups was similar to the scientific taxonomy criteria, showing a detailed local ecological knowledge by this group of fishers. Source

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