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Villasante S.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Coll M.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2016

With the advance of ecosystem services (ES) assessments, the existence of synergies and trade-offs between services became clear. However, identifying these conflicts and potentials correctly and estimating the impacts of simultaneous use or of favoring one service to the detriment of the other is not a simple task. Among marine ecosystem services, the challenge is probably larger, given the invisible nature of some of the resources and services provided, and the fact that we do not have full control over such a huge habitat. In this Special Section we attempt to discuss some of these synergies and trade-offs at different geographical scales, from local case studies to multiple ecosystem assessments, and from cultural to provisioning ES. Along twelve papers, different frameworks, theoretical approaches and statistical tools are developed to show the state-of-the-art in ES assessment in developed and developing countries. Together, these studies bring a new diagnosis at local scales, where marine protected areas can or not interact synergistically with other services, such as fishing and tourism, depending on the institutional strength and proper development of social capital. Overall, this special issue presents multiple recommendations that can redirect policy-making regarding the best use of ES around the globe. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Karper M.A.M.,Wageningen University | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

This study investigated the effects of legal and societal punishment on fishermen's compliance behaviour, according to fishermen's age and level of dependency on fisheries, through the use of interviews and scenarios. Ninety-five fishermen living in a coastal park (Ponta do Tubarão Sustainable Development Reserve) in the Brazilian northeast, where controlled exploitation of natural resources is allowed, took part in this study. The results showed that age alone would not affect compliance, regardless of the level of enforcement. However, it was noticed that the fishermen who claimed to depend on the money provided by fisheries, regardless of their age, were more likely to say that they would not comply, even if enforcement were stricter. The scenario analysis showed that increased monitoring and punishment (including societal pressure) could enhance compliance, especially among younger fishermen, who claimed not to depend solely on fisheries. Therefore, fisheries management should also consider differences in social groups, and not focus solely on the enforcement and punishment mechanisms, assuring that livelihood options that consider different social needs are provided. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Silvano R.A.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Silvano R.A.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Begossi A.,University of Campinas | Begossi A.,Fisheries and Food Institute
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2010

Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) has a worldwide distribution, being targeted by fishers all along its range, which includes the Brazilian coast. We formulated and checked hypotheses regarding bluefish diet, migration, and reproduction based on fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK). We interviewed 49 experienced fishers (40 years and older) from five communities along the Brazilian coast and analyzed the diet and reproduction of 185 fish. According to fishers' LEK, the bluefish spawn mainly during the winter, migrate throughout year (from the South to North), and eat mainly small fish (Clupeidae and Engraulidae), plus shrimp and squid. The biological survey confirmed the hypothesis on bluefish diet (78% of fish with stomach contents had fish in their stomachs) but not that on reproduction: we observed larger fish and more fish with visible eggs during summer and autumn. Migratory movements mentioned by fishers agreed with literature data. Besides providing data to support conventional management decisions in the absence of biological surveys, our results and approach could help involve fishers in management, thus contributing to development of co-management systems more suitable to local conditions and to complex tropical fisheries. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Damasio L.D.M.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Pennino M.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 2 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2016

Several factors influence catches and the sustainability of fisheries, and such factors might be different depending on the scale on which fisheries work. We investigated the existence of possible subdivisions within small-scale fisheries (SSF) themselves, regarding their economic performance and relative social and environmental impacts to understand which categories of these two types of fleets are best positioned to support sustainability. By doing so, we investigated if it is a good strategy for SSF to aim to grow towards larger scales. We obtained economic and ecological data from landing samplings and information on technological efficiency of this fleet, using a northeastern Brazilian state as a case study. We defined a cut-off point to separate the SSF into two categories of boats, according to their size and gear. We compared their cpue and the factors affecting it within each category; we also compared economic (number of boats, number of landings, jobs, gears, catch, travel time and total time of the fishery, revenues, costs, profits, revenue per unit of effort, and profit per unit of effort) and ecological factors (vulnerability of species caught) between the two categories. We found that small boats spent less time fishing and employed comparatively more people per landed value and catch. The cpue and profits of small boats were also higher. Both large and small boats exploit species with the same overall vulnerability. Therefore, being smaller, even within the SSF category, seems to be a more advantageous social and economic strategy for guaranteeing higher catches and more employment opportunities per catch. These findings need to be taken into account when defining new policies, such as the distribution of subsidies that support or not the sustainable use of fishery resources. © 2016 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2016. All rights reserved. Source

De Melo Alves Damasio L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Guariento R.D.,Health Science University | Carvalho A.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background In small-scale fishery, information provided by fishers has been useful to complement current and past lack of knowledge on species and environment. Methodology Through interviews, 82 fishers from the largest fishing communities on the north and south borders of a Brazilian northeastern coastal state provided estimates of the catch per unit effort (CPUE) and rank of species abundance of their main target fishes for three time points: current year (2013 at the time of the research), 10, and 20 years past. This information was contrasted to other available data sources: scientific sampling of fish landing (2013), governmental statistics (2003), and information provided by expert fishers (1993), respectively. Principal Findings Fishers were more accurate when reporting information about their maximum CPUE for 2013, but except for three species, which they estimated accurately, fishers overestimated their mean CPUE per species. Fishers were also accurate at establishing ranks of abundance of their main target species for all periods. Fishers' beliefs that fish abundance has not changed over the last 10 years (2003-2013) were corroborated by governmental and scientific landing data. Conclusions The comparison between official and formal landing records and fishers' perceptions revealed that fishers are accurate when reporting maximum CPUE, but not when reporting mean CPUE. Moreover, fishers are less precise the less common a species is in their catches, suggesting that they could provide better information for management purposes on their current target species. © 2015 Damasio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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