Fisheries and Food Institute

Santos, Brazil

Fisheries and Food Institute

Santos, Brazil
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Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Mendes L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Fonseca V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Villasante S.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2017

Although critical tools for protecting ocean habitats, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are sometimes challenged for social impacts and conflicts they may generate. Some conflicts have an economic base, which, once understood, can be used to resolve associated socioenvironmental problems. We addressed how the fish trade in an MPA that combines no-take zones and tourist or resident zones creates incentives for increased fisheries. We performed a value chain analysis following the fish supply and trade through interviews that assessed consumer demand and preference. The results showed a simple and closed value chain driven by tourism (70% of the consumption). Both tourists and local consumers preferred high trophic level species (predators), but the former preferred large pelagics (tuna and dolphinfish) and the latter preferred reef species (barracuda and snapper). Pelagic predators are caught with fresh sardines, which are sometimes located only in the no-take zone. Pelagic species are mainly served as fillet, and the leftover fish parts end up as waste, an issue that, if properly addressed, can help reduce fishing pressure. Whereas some of the target species may be sustainable (e.g., dolphinfish), others are more vulnerable (e.g., wahoo) and should not be intensively fished. We advise setting stricter limits to the number of tourists visiting MPAs, according to their own capacity and peculiarities, in order to avoid conflicts with conservations goals through incentives for increased resource use. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Rosa E.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Salyvonchyk S.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | And 3 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2013

Marine protected areas created in a top-down way can be costly and ineffective due to low compliance of resource users. Conversely, employing users' local knowledge and involving them in decision-making processes could decrease costs and conflicts, in addition to increasing the chances of management success. Here the potential to change conflicting MPAs into conservation areas that take into account fishers' use and knowledge is assessed based on a case study on the Brazilian coast (Paraty town). Fishers (n=206) from 11 villages were interviewed regarding their main fishing targets and gear, and then only the experienced ones (n=41) were interviewed from three main fishing villages about the most important commercial species. Fish landings were sampled for one year in these three villages (n=823), where participatory mapping and group interviews with fishers were also conducted to determine their opinions regarding management and how they thought it should be undertaken. Management measures should not be equivalent across the whole region, as there were clear differences in the target species and gear used. Fishers identified 55 important fishing spots, eight of which were important for more than five villages, while the experts identified 10 important fishing areas for the target species, which was supported by the sampling of fish landings. The fishers were not opposed to management and no-take reserves but would make some changes in the current design of these measures if it were up to them. Based on these data, a few changes were indicated in the design of these areas that would likely reduce the conflict between fishers and enforcement agencies. This kind of approach could be used as a framework for adapting conflictive MPAs or to support the establishment of new ones where fisheries are relevant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Fisheries and Food Institute and University of Campinas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine | Year: 2016

Although fishers knowledge has been recently considered into management programmes, there is still the need to establish a better understanding of fishers perceptions and cognition. Fishers can provide novel information on the biology and ecology of species, which can potentially be used in the management of fisheries. The knowledge fishers have and how they classify nature is empirically based. It is common, for example, to observe that fishers taxonomy is often represented by the generic level, one of the hierarchical categories of folk classification that is somewhat analogous to the Linnean genus, as it groups organisms of a higher rank than the folk species.In this study we compiled the knowledge fishers have on local fish, such as their folk names, diet and habitat.Five coastal communities widely distributed along the Brazilian coast were studied: two from the northeast (Porto Saupe and Itacimirim, in Bahia State, n of interviewees=34), two from the southeast (Itaipu at Niteri and Copacabana at Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, n=35) and one from the south coast (Pntano do Sul, in Santa Catarina State, n=23). Fish pictures were randomly ordered and the same order was presented to all interviewees (n=92), when they were then asked about the species name and classification and its habitat and diet preferences.Fishers make clusters of fish species, usually hierarchically; fishers of the coast of Brazil use mostly primary lexemes (generic names) to name fish; and fishers did not differentiate between scientific species, since the same folk generic name included two different scientific species. Fishers provide information on species to which there is scarce or no information on diet and habitat, such as Rhinobatos percellens (chola guitarfish, arraia viola or cao viola), Sphoeroides dorsalis (marbled puffer, baiacu), Mycteroperca acutirostris (comb grouper, badejo) and Dasyatis guttata (longnose stingray, arraia, arraia manteiga).fishers knowledge on fish diet and fish habitat can be strategic to management, since their knowledge concentrates on the fishery target species, which are the ones under higher fishing pressure. Besides, fishers showed to have knowledge on species still poorly known to science.

Silvano R.A.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Silvano R.A.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Begossi A.,University of Campinas | Begossi A.,Fisheries and Food Institute
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2010

Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) has a worldwide distribution, being targeted by fishers all along its range, which includes the Brazilian coast. We formulated and checked hypotheses regarding bluefish diet, migration, and reproduction based on fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK). We interviewed 49 experienced fishers (40 years and older) from five communities along the Brazilian coast and analyzed the diet and reproduction of 185 fish. According to fishers' LEK, the bluefish spawn mainly during the winter, migrate throughout year (from the South to North), and eat mainly small fish (Clupeidae and Engraulidae), plus shrimp and squid. The biological survey confirmed the hypothesis on bluefish diet (78% of fish with stomach contents had fish in their stomachs) but not that on reproduction: we observed larger fish and more fish with visible eggs during summer and autumn. Migratory movements mentioned by fishers agreed with literature data. Besides providing data to support conventional management decisions in the absence of biological surveys, our results and approach could help involve fishers in management, thus contributing to development of co-management systems more suitable to local conditions and to complex tropical fisheries. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

Villasante S.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Coll M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2016

With the advance of ecosystem services (ES) assessments, the existence of synergies and trade-offs between services became clear. However, identifying these conflicts and potentials correctly and estimating the impacts of simultaneous use or of favoring one service to the detriment of the other is not a simple task. Among marine ecosystem services, the challenge is probably larger, given the invisible nature of some of the resources and services provided, and the fact that we do not have full control over such a huge habitat. In this Special Section we attempt to discuss some of these synergies and trade-offs at different geographical scales, from local case studies to multiple ecosystem assessments, and from cultural to provisioning ES. Along twelve papers, different frameworks, theoretical approaches and statistical tools are developed to show the state-of-the-art in ES assessment in developed and developing countries. Together, these studies bring a new diagnosis at local scales, where marine protected areas can or not interact synergistically with other services, such as fishing and tourism, depending on the institutional strength and proper development of social capital. Overall, this special issue presents multiple recommendations that can redirect policy-making regarding the best use of ES around the globe. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Silva M.R.O.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

One of the reasons for the failure of some Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is the lack of respect for their boundaries and regulations, which intensifies the need to assess the attitudes of stakeholders affected by MPAs. To this end, it is necessary to know the perception and behavior of resource users in these areas in relation to the management process. This study addressed the perception of different groups of fishermen in three MPAs that allow sustainable use of resources on the Brazilian northeastern coast. The perception analysis was based on four aspects: biodiversity conservation, flexibility and adaptability of fishermen, participation in management and opinions about the MPA. The interviewed fishermen (. n=100) were classified into natives or immigrants,≥than 40 years old or <40, predominant use of selective or nonselective fishing gear and part or full time fishermen. The results showed that younger fishermen and the ones who use selective fishing gear presented a more conservation prone perception; nonselective fishermen and part-time fishermen were more flexible and adaptable to changes; and younger fishermen tended to agree more with the establishment of the MPAs. Taking these differences in perceptions among fishermen into account could serve as a basis for improvements in the management and conservation of fishing resources, besides helping predict possible future behavior due to changes in management policies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Damasio L.D.M.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Pennino M.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 2 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2016

Several factors influence catches and the sustainability of fisheries, and such factors might be different depending on the scale on which fisheries work. We investigated the existence of possible subdivisions within small-scale fisheries (SSF) themselves, regarding their economic performance and relative social and environmental impacts to understand which categories of these two types of fleets are best positioned to support sustainability. By doing so, we investigated if it is a good strategy for SSF to aim to grow towards larger scales. We obtained economic and ecological data from landing samplings and information on technological efficiency of this fleet, using a northeastern Brazilian state as a case study. We defined a cut-off point to separate the SSF into two categories of boats, according to their size and gear. We compared their cpue and the factors affecting it within each category; we also compared economic (number of boats, number of landings, jobs, gears, catch, travel time and total time of the fishery, revenues, costs, profits, revenue per unit of effort, and profit per unit of effort) and ecological factors (vulnerability of species caught) between the two categories. We found that small boats spent less time fishing and employed comparatively more people per landed value and catch. The cpue and profits of small boats were also higher. Both large and small boats exploit species with the same overall vulnerability. Therefore, being smaller, even within the SSF category, seems to be a more advantageous social and economic strategy for guaranteeing higher catches and more employment opportunities per catch. These findings need to be taken into account when defining new policies, such as the distribution of subsidies that support or not the sustainable use of fishery resources. © 2016 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2016. All rights reserved.

Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Begossi A.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Begossi A.,University of Campinas
Fisheries Management and Ecology | Year: 2011

Brazilian shrimp trawlers and gillnetters were compared regarding their decisions concerning effort, processing of fish, time spent fishing and how they are affected by environmental, cultural and economic factors. Landings were recorded over 13months (n=424) and comprised mainly sea bob shrimp -Xyphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) (95% of the trawler catch) and weakfish, Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant & Bocourt) (30% of the gillnet catch). Catch per Unit of Effort varied across months, and the number of fishing trips per day was explained by wave height for both fisheries (trawlers: r2=0.4; gillnetters: r2=0.18). Trawlers spent more time fishing in the winter (H=11.6; P<0.05) and gillnetters in the summer (F=4.1; P<0.001), a decision that depended on the monetary profit they estimated beforehand or on the loss they had during the closed season. Cultural and economic variables (qualitatively addressed), such as how tedious they considered processing the catch or how much money they needed to make, affected their choice of processing it or not. Trawlers were subjected to taking risky actions, fishing on days when the return is highly variable (rkg=0.72; P<0.001; r$=0.65; P<0.001). Understanding such processes underpinning fishermen's actions is essential for management. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

De Melo Alves Damasio L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute | Guariento R.D.,Health Science University | Carvalho A.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background In small-scale fishery, information provided by fishers has been useful to complement current and past lack of knowledge on species and environment. Methodology Through interviews, 82 fishers from the largest fishing communities on the north and south borders of a Brazilian northeastern coastal state provided estimates of the catch per unit effort (CPUE) and rank of species abundance of their main target fishes for three time points: current year (2013 at the time of the research), 10, and 20 years past. This information was contrasted to other available data sources: scientific sampling of fish landing (2013), governmental statistics (2003), and information provided by expert fishers (1993), respectively. Principal Findings Fishers were more accurate when reporting information about their maximum CPUE for 2013, but except for three species, which they estimated accurately, fishers overestimated their mean CPUE per species. Fishers were also accurate at establishing ranks of abundance of their main target species for all periods. Fishers' beliefs that fish abundance has not changed over the last 10 years (2003-2013) were corroborated by governmental and scientific landing data. Conclusions The comparison between official and formal landing records and fishers' perceptions revealed that fishers are accurate when reporting maximum CPUE, but not when reporting mean CPUE. Moreover, fishers are less precise the less common a species is in their catches, suggesting that they could provide better information for management purposes on their current target species. © 2015 Damasio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Karper M.A.M.,Wageningen University | Lopes P.F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Lopes P.F.M.,Fisheries and Food Institute
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

This study investigated the effects of legal and societal punishment on fishermen's compliance behaviour, according to fishermen's age and level of dependency on fisheries, through the use of interviews and scenarios. Ninety-five fishermen living in a coastal park (Ponta do Tubarão Sustainable Development Reserve) in the Brazilian northeast, where controlled exploitation of natural resources is allowed, took part in this study. The results showed that age alone would not affect compliance, regardless of the level of enforcement. However, it was noticed that the fishermen who claimed to depend on the money provided by fisheries, regardless of their age, were more likely to say that they would not comply, even if enforcement were stricter. The scenario analysis showed that increased monitoring and punishment (including societal pressure) could enhance compliance, especially among younger fishermen, who claimed not to depend solely on fisheries. Therefore, fisheries management should also consider differences in social groups, and not focus solely on the enforcement and punishment mechanisms, assuring that livelihood options that consider different social needs are provided. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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