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Mallet A.L.,Mallet Research Services Ltd. | Carver C.E.,Mallet Research Services Ltd. | Doiron S.,Aquaculture and Fisheries | Theriault M.-H.,Gulf
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

Size groups of Eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (20-30. mm, 30-40. mm, 40-50. mm, and 50-60. mm) were individually labeled, randomly assigned to two types of floating culture gears (horizontal ropes and Vexar bags) and deployed at various locations in northern New Brunswick, Canada. Results indicated that the rope-grown oysters substantially outperformed those deployed in floating bags; after one growing season, shell growth was 60% higher and weight gain was nearly double. More than 95% of the variance in shell or weight growth could be explained by the culture gear. The difference in oyster performance between the two culture gears was greater at certain sites, or a significant culture gear by site effect. In particular, it appeared that growth in the floating bags was relatively depressed at the more dynamic sites with higher wave action. Based on the rope-grown oyster performance, we would suggest that the environmental conditions at the various locations tested in this study would support similar levels of commercial oyster production. The prediction would be quite different, however, if the site productivity assessment were based on performance data from floating oyster bags. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Martin J.L.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | LeGresley M.M.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Thorpe B.,Aquaculture and Fisheries | McCurdy P.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2011

A monitoring programme was initiated in 2006 to detect invasive tunicates, especially Ciona intestinalis, Botryllus schlosseri, Didemnum vexillum, Botrylloides violaceus and Styela clava, in Atlantic Canada. Collectors were deployed at 11-21 monitoring stations in the southwestern New Brunswick portion of the Bay of Fundy from 2006-2009, starting in late May with some retrieved in August while others remained in the water until later in the fall. There was large variability between years and sites. C. intestinalis was detected through much of the southwest New Brunswick area, including Grand Manan Island, but not in the area from Dipper Harbour to Saint John. B. schlosseri was observed to be concentrated in the Dipper/Beaver Harbour areas and Grand Manan Island, St. Andrews Harbour, Fairhaven (Deer Island), and Harbour de Loutre (Campobello Island), with greatest settlement observed in 2009. During the study period, B. violaceus was first detected in 2009 and at only one location, Head Harbour, Campobello Island. S. clava and D. vexillum have not been detected from our sampling collectors to date. As the invasive colonial tunicate, D. vexillum, has rapidly extended its range in the northeastern United States of America and is within 2 km of Canadian waters, a rapid assessment was conducted around Deer Island and Campobello Island in September 2009 and failed to detect the species. © 2011 REABIC.

Darbyshire S.J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Francis A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Mulligan G.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Graham G.L.,Aquaculture and Fisheries
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2014

Marsh hedge-nettle, Stachys palustris, is a perennial Eurasian member of the mint family, which has become naturalized and weedy in some parts of eastern North America. It is a hexaploid member of a holarctic species complex, which differs morphologically from the primarily tetraploid North American forms. The production of fleshy tuberous rhizomes is the most significant distinctive feature. In Canada, it has been a weed of potato and root crops in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, although other crops and areas, such as soybean in Ontario, are also affected. Usually considered a wetland plant, it readily spreads into drier arable fields from adjacent ditches and wetlands. Several herbicides available for use in Canada have been found to provide limited long-term suppression in agricultural systems, with the best results obtained using combined pre-emergent and post-emergent applications.

Olale E.,Aquaculture and Fisheries | Henson S.,University of Guelph
Food Policy | Year: 2013

Past studies have shown that fishing communities in developing countries are generally poor. One potential strategy for reducing poverty among these communities is income diversification. This study investigates the impact of income diversification on incomes of fishing communities living on the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Using four propensity score matching methods, we find evidence that income diversification increases the incomes of fish workers. The strongest impact appears to be among fishers, fish enterprise employees and fish workers in the non-export beach. Based on these results, income diversification can be considered a poverty reduction strategy among fishing communities in Western Kenya. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Fageria M.S.,Agricultural Certification Services | Singh M.,Agricultural Certification Services | Nanayakkara U.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Pelletier Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

The current-season spread of Potato virus Y (PVY) was investigated in New Brunswick, Canada, in 11 potato fields planted with six different cultivars in 2009 and 2010. In all, 100 plants selected from each field were monitored for current-season PVY infections using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Average PVY incidence in fields increased from 0.6% in 2009 and 2% in 2010 in the leaves to 20.3% in 2009 and 21.9% in 2010 in the tubers at the time of harvest. In individual fields, PVY incidence in tubers reached as high as 37% in 2009 and 39% in 2010 at the time of harvest. Real-time RT-PCR assay detected more samples with PVY from leaves than did ELISA. A higher number of positive samples was also detected with real-time RT-PCR from growing tubers compared with the leaves collected from the same plant at the same sampling time. PVY incidence determined from the growing tubers showed a significant positive correlation with the PVY incidence of tubers after harvest. Preharvest testing provides another option to growers to either top-kill the crop immediately to secure the seed market when the PVY incidence is low or leave the tubers to develop further for table or processing purposes when incidence of PVY is high. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.

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