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Yong R.Q.-Y.,University of Queensland | Cutmore S.C.,University of Queensland | Bray R.A.,Natural History Museum in London | Miller T.L.,Fish Health Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2016

We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥. 7. × the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Nolan M.J.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Cantacessi C.,University of Cambridge | Cutmore S.C.,University of Queensland | Cribb T.H.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2016

We report a new species of aporocotylid trematode (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) from the heart of the orangelined cardinalfish, Taeniamia fucata (Cantor), from off Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef. We used an integrated approach, analysing host distribution, morphology, and genetic data from the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal DNA, to circumscribe Phthinomita heinigerae n. sp. This is the first species of Phthinomita Nolan & Cribb, 2006 reported from the Apogonidae; existing species and known 'types' are recorded from species of the Labridae, Mullidae, and Siganidae. The new species is distinguished from its 11 congeners in having a body 2977-3539 long and 16.5-22.4 times longer than wide, an anterior testis 6.2-8.2 times longer than wide and 8.3-13.0 times longer than the posterior testis, a posterior testis whose width is 35-56% of the body width, and an ovary positioned 11-13% of the body length from the posterior end, and is entirely anterior to the posterior margin of the anterior testis. In addition, 2-34 base differences (0.4-7.0% sequence divergence over 485 base positions) were detected among the ITS2 sequence representing P. heinigerae n. sp. and the 14 representing other Phthinomita species/molecular types. Prevalence and intensity of infection with P. heinigerae n. sp. was relatively high within the heart tissue of T. fucata, with 19 of 20 fish examined from off Heron Island infected (95%) with 7-25 adult worms (arithmetic mean 16.6). Infections by these parasites accounted for an occupation of 7-30% of the total estimated heart volume. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Gibson-Kueh S.,Murdoch University | Chee D.,Animal and Plant Health Laboratories | Chen J.,Animal and Plant Health Laboratories | Wang Y.H.,Animal and Plant Health Laboratories | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2012

This is the first pathological description of 'scale drop syndrome' (SDS) in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer Bloch. Cumulative mortality was estimated at 40-50%. The vasculitis in all major organs including the skin and associated tissue necrosis was distinctive. The dermis overlying scale beds was often necrotic and associated with scale loss. Necrosis of splenic ellipsoids, renal glomeruli and choroid rete glands of eye were further hallmarks of a disease with systemic vascular involvement. The brain was not spared vascular damage, and the resulting multifocal encephalomalacia probably accounts for the spiral swimming behaviour in some affected fish. Other lesions included accentuated hepatic lobulation and gastric gland necrosis. Nuclear chromatin margination and karyolysis in hepatocytes, renal tubular epithelium and gastric and intestinal epithelium suggest specific targeting of cells. Basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions were present in spleen, kidney, liver, heart and choroid rete, but they were not prominent. Using transmission electron microscopy, two morphological forms of virions were observed: single- and double-enveloped hexagonal virions. Based on size and morphology, these virions resemble iridovirus or herpesvirus. The cause of SDS is unknown, but the pathological changes, especially the vasculitis, suggest an infectious aetiology, possibly viral. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Nolan M.J.,Royal Veterinary College University of London | Curran S.S.,University of Southern Mississippi | Miller T.L.,Fish Health Laboratory | Cutmore S.C.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2015

Two new species of bucephalid trematode (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) are described from the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), from off Lizard Island, Australia. We used a combined morphological and molecular-based approach targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the D1-D3 region of the large subunit (28S) of rDNA to circumscribe the species. Dollfustrema durum n. sp. is distinguished from seven congeners in having 5-6 rows of enlarged body spines circling the anterior portion of the rhynchus. From the remaining 10 species, D. durum n. sp. differs in body length, and in having a caecum that terminates posteriorly to the confluent arc formed by the vitelline follicles, gonads predominantly anterior to the pharynx, testes in tandem, an anterior testis positioned posteriorly to the vitelline follicles, and the pre-vitelline field 23-40% of the body length. Heterobucephalopsis perardua n. sp. differs from Heterobucephalopsis gymnothoracis, the type- and only other reported species, in being two to three times smaller. Heterobucephalopsis, currently considered a genus inquirendum, is confirmed as valid and is rediagnosed. Bayesian inference analysis of 28S rDNA sequences representing 28 species from nine genera and four subfamilies of bucephalid, indicates that i) subfamily classifications previously based on morphological characters are broadly robust, ii) the sequence representing H. perardua n. sp. is resolved as distinct, and basal, to sequences representing the Bucephalinae, the Prosorhynchinae, the Paurorhynchinae, and the Dolichoenterinae, iii) the Dolichoenterinae and the Prosorhynchinae are monophyletic sister clades, basal to the Bucephalinae and the Paurorhynchinae, iv) sequences representing Grammatorcynicola, Prosorhynchus, and Dollfustrema are also monophyletic, v) the Bucephalinae is paraphyletic relative to the Paurorhynchinae, and vi) the bucephaline genera Prosorhynchoides, Rhipidocotyle, and Bucephalus are each polyphyletic. The morphological and molecular differences observed among the four previously recognised subfamilies in this study lead us to propose Heterobucephalopsinae n. subfam. to accommodate the genus Heterobucephalopsis. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Zilberg D.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Jones J.B.,Fish Health Laboratory | Burger M.A.A.,Fish Health Laboratory | Nicholls P.K.,Murdoch University | And 3 more authors.
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2012

Mulloway Argyrosomus japonicus is a native fish species in Western Australia, for which aquaculture production has recently been developed. A single cohort was stocked in a cage offshore at Geraldton, Western Australia, at a water depth of 6 m. Fish appeared healthy before stocking. Routine histological analysis was carried out from 10 mo post stocking and until completion of harvest (about 2.5 yr post stocking). No gross pathology was evident. Microscopically, however, granulomatous lesions were present in the kidneys of almost 100% of the fish examined. Enclosed in the granuloma was an aggregate of organisms, 4.2 to 5.4 μm in diameter. Kidney granulomas appeared as multi-focal aggregates. Granulomas at different stages of formation and finally fibrosing granulomas were observed. Granulomas also appeared infrequently in other organs: a few granulomas were found in the liver and spleen and a single granuloma in the heart of one fish. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the organism was composed of 2 cells, an outer cell enclosing an inner cell. The inner cell was surrounded by a double membrane and the outer cell by a single membrane. Cellular material, presumably of parasitic nature, surrounded the outer cell. The organism contained primitive mitochondria and abundant free ribosomes. Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence obtained by PCR revealed an 84% sequence identity with the myxosporean Latyspora scomberomori. Based on TEM and preliminary molecular results, we suggest that the organism is the extrasporogonic developmental stage of a myxozoan parasite, which failed to form spores in the mulloway host. © Inter-Research 2012. Source

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