Van Scoy A.R.,University of California at Davis |
Anderson B.S.,University of California at Davis |
Philips B.M.,University of California at Davis |
Voorhees J.,University of California at Davis |
And 8 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012
Oil spill responders require information on the relative toxicity of dispersed and un-dispersed oil in order to make informed decisions regarding the use of chemical dispersants during spill events. Toxicity of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and the chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF; via the dispersant Corexit 9500) of weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil was investigated using adult and embryonic topsmelt; topsmelt are an ecologically important atherinid in California bays and estuaries and an important indicator species. Following 96-h exposures, metabolite profiles were measured using 1D 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and compared via principal component analysis. Similar metabolic profiles were obtained between WAF- and CEWAF-exposed adults and embryos. Although metabolic changes, for the adults lacked significance, significant increasing and decreasing metabolic changes were observed for embryos directly exposed. Furthermore, no mortality was observed for embryos, exposed to WAF and normal development occurred, whereas CEWAF exposed embryos lead to mortality and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observed toxicological information, specifically for developing fish, can aide resource managers in the relative risk of treating oil spills with dispersant. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.