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Valencia, Spain

Alguacil-Ramos A.M.,FISABIO | Garrigues-Pelufo T.M.,University of Valencia | Muelas-Tirado J.,Farmacia y Productos Sanitarios | Portero-Alonso A.,Salud Publica | And 2 more authors.
Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate reports of adverse events following influenza immunization by sex, risk and age groups in Valencian Community from 2005 to 2011. Methods: A pharmacoepidemiological descriptive cross-sectional observational study based on the reports of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) against influenza, registered through the Vaccination Information System (SIV) of Valencian Community from 1 January 2005 until 31 December 2011 was done. Results: During the study period 5,107,790 doses of vaccine against influenza were reported, with an AEFI incidence of 1.94 per 100,000 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.36), and 228,094 doses of vaccine for influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (96.45 per 100,000, 95%CI 84.52-110.06). The 70.71% (70) and 64.55% (142), respectively, of AEFI were in women. The healthcare workers group had a higher reporting rate for seasonal influenza (25.35 per 100,000; 95%CI: 17.65-36.40) and for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (864.13 per 100,000; 95%CI 714.38-1044.93) during the study period. Conclusions: Vaccines against influenza administered during the study had a high safety profile in both populations with disease risk and other susceptible target groups of vaccination. Adverse reactions reported during the study mostly coincide with those described in the summary of product characteristics of vaccines. ©, 2015, Sociedad Espanola de Quiminoterapia. All Rights Reserved. Source


Merida S.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Palacios E.,FISABIO | Navea A.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Bosch-Morell F.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2015

Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution. © 2015 Salvador Mérida et al. Source


Cosin-Roger J.,University of Valencia | Ortiz-Masia D.,University of Valencia | Calatayud S.,University of Valencia | Hernandez C.,FISABIO | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Macrophages, which exhibit great plasticity, are important components of the inflamed tissue and constitute an essential element of regenerative responses. Epithelial Wnt signalling is involved in mechanisms of proliferation and differentiation and expression of Wnt ligands by macrophages has been reported. We aim to determine whether the macrophage phenotype determines the expression of Wnt ligands, the influence of the macrophage phenotype in epithelial activation of Wnt signalling and the relevance of this pathway in ulcerative colitis. Human monocyte-derived macrophages and U937-derived macrophages were polarized towards M1 or M2 phenotypes and the expression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a was analyzed by qPCR. The effects of macrophages and the role of Wnt1 were analyzed on the expression of β-catenin, Tcf-4, c-Myc and markers of cell differentiation in a co-culture system with Caco-2 cells. Immunohistochemical staining of CD68, CD206, CD86, Wnt1, β-catenin and c-Myc were evaluated in the damaged and non-damaged mucosa of patients with UC. We also determined the mRNA expression of Lgr5 and c-Myc by qPCR and protein levels of β-catenin by western blot. Results show that M2, and no M1, activated the Wnt signaling pathway in co-culture epithelial cells through Wnt1 which impaired enterocyte differentiation. A significant increase in the number of CD206+ macrophages was observed in the damaged mucosa of chronic vs newly diagnosed patients. CD206 immunostaining co-localized with Wnt1 in the mucosa and these cells were associated with activation of canonical Wnt signalling pathway in epithelial cells and diminution of alkaline phosphatase activity. Our results show that M2 macrophages, and not M1, activate Wnt signalling pathways and decrease enterocyte differentiation in co-cultured epithelial cells. In the mucosa of UC patients, M2 macrophages increase with chronicity and are associated with activation of epithelial Wnt signalling and diminution in enterocyte differentiation. © 2013 Cosín-Roger et al. Source


Ortiz-Masia D.,University of Valencia | Diez I.,University of Valencia | Calatayud S.,University of Valencia | Hernandez C.,FISABIO | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Inflammation is part of a complex biological response of vascular tissue to pathogens or damaged cells. First inflammatory cells attempt to remove the injurious stimuli and this is followed by a healing process mediated principally by phagocytosis of senescent cells. Hypoxia and p38-MAPK are associated with inflammation, and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been detected in inflamed tissues. We aimed to analyse the role of p38-MAPK and HIF-1 in the transcriptional regulation of CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, and its ligand thrombospondin (TSP-1) in macrophages and to evaluate the involvement of this pathway in phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. We have also assessed HIF-1α, p38-MAPK and CD36 immunostaining in the mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results show that hypoxia increases neutrophil phagocytosis by macrophages and induces the expression of CD36 and TSP-1. Addition of a p38-MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the increase in CD36 and TSP-1 expression provoked by hypoxia and decreased HIF-1α stabilization in macrophages. Transient transfection of macrophages with a miHIF-1α-targeting vector blocked the increase in mRNA expression of CD36 and TSP-1 during hypoxia and reduced phagocytosis, thus highlighting a role for the transcriptional activity of HIF-1. CD36 and TSP-1 were necessary for the phagocytosis of neutrophils induced by hypoxic macrophages, since functional blockade of these proteins undermined this process. Immunohistochemical studies revealed CD36, HIF-1α and p38-MAPK expression in the mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A positive and significant correlation between HIF-1α and CD36 expression and CD36 and p38-MAPK expression was observed in cells of the lamina propria of the damaged mucosa. Our results demonstrate a HIF-1-dependent up-regulation of CD36 and TSP-1 that mediates the increased phagocytosis of neutrophils by macrophages during hypoxia. Moreover, they suggest that CD36 expression in the damaged mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease depends on p38-MAPK and HIF-1 activity. © 2012 Ortiz-Masià et al. Source


Ortiz-Masia D.,University of Valencia | Cosin-Roger J.,University of Valencia | Calatayud S.,University of Valencia | Hernandez C.,FISABIO | And 5 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2014

A defective induction of epithelial autophagy may have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. This process is regulated mainly by extracellular factors such as nutrients and growth factors and is highly induced by diverse situations of stress. We hypothesized that epithelial autophagy is regulated by the immune response that in turn is modulated by local hypoxia and inflammatory signals present in the inflamed mucosa. Our results reveal that HIF-1α and Wnt1 were co-localized with CD68 in cells of the mucosa of IBD patients. We have observed increased protein levels of β-catenin, phosphorylated mTOR, and p62 and decreased expression of LC3II in colonic epithelial crypts from damaged mucosa in which β-catenin positively correlated with phosphorylated mTOR and negatively correlated with autophagic protein markers. In cultured macrophages, HIF-1 mediated the increase in Wnt1 expression induced by hypoxia, which enhanced protein levels of β-catenin, activated mTOR, and decreased autophagy in epithelial cells in co-culture. Our results demonstrate a HIF-1-dependent induction of Wnt1 in hypoxic macrophages that undermines autophagy in epithelial cells and suggest a role for Wnt signaling and mTOR pathways in the impaired epithelial autophagy observed in the mucosa of IBD patients. © 2014 Society for Mucosal Immunology. Source

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