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Puig-Barbera J.,Fundacion para el Fomento de la Investigacion Sanitaria y Biomedica de la Comunitat Valenciana FISABIO | Mira-Iglesias A.,Fundacion para el Fomento de la Investigacion Sanitaria y Biomedica de la Comunitat Valenciana FISABIO | Tortajada-Girbes M.,Hospital Doctor Peset | Tortajada-Girbes M.,Hospital Dr Peset | And 24 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2015

Preliminary results for the 2014/15 season indicate low to null effect of vaccination against influenza A(H3N2)-related disease. As of week 5 2015, there have been 1,136 hospital admissions, 210 were due to influenza and 98% of subtype A strains were H3. Adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness was 33% (range: 6–53%) overall and 40% (range: 13% to 59%) in those 65 years and older. Vaccination reduced by 44% (28–68%) the probability of admission with influenza. © 2015, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.


Alguacil-Ramos A.M.,FISABIO | Garrigues-Pelufo T.M.,University of Valencia | Muelas-Tirado J.,Farmacia y Productos Sanitarios | Portero-Alonso A.,Salud Publica | And 2 more authors.
Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate reports of adverse events following influenza immunization by sex, risk and age groups in Valencian Community from 2005 to 2011. Methods: A pharmacoepidemiological descriptive cross-sectional observational study based on the reports of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) against influenza, registered through the Vaccination Information System (SIV) of Valencian Community from 1 January 2005 until 31 December 2011 was done. Results: During the study period 5,107,790 doses of vaccine against influenza were reported, with an AEFI incidence of 1.94 per 100,000 (95% CI 1.59 to 2.36), and 228,094 doses of vaccine for influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (96.45 per 100,000, 95%CI 84.52-110.06). The 70.71% (70) and 64.55% (142), respectively, of AEFI were in women. The healthcare workers group had a higher reporting rate for seasonal influenza (25.35 per 100,000; 95%CI: 17.65-36.40) and for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (864.13 per 100,000; 95%CI 714.38-1044.93) during the study period. Conclusions: Vaccines against influenza administered during the study had a high safety profile in both populations with disease risk and other susceptible target groups of vaccination. Adverse reactions reported during the study mostly coincide with those described in the summary of product characteristics of vaccines. ©, 2015, Sociedad Espanola de Quiminoterapia. All Rights Reserved.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers from the University of Burgos (Spain) have developed a fluorescent polymer that lights up in contact with mercury that may be present in fish. High levels of the metal were detected in samples of swordfish and tuna. According to the conclusions of another Spanish study, mercury exposure is linked to reduced foetal and placental growth in pregnant women. The presence of the toxic metal mercury in the environment comes from natural sources, however, in the last decades industrial waste has caused an increase in concentrations of the metal in some areas of the sea. In the food chain, mercury can be diluted either in organic form as methylmercury (MeHg+) or as an inorganic salt, the cation Hg2+. Now, researchers from the University of Burgos have created a fluorescent polymer, JG25, which can detect the presence of these two forms of mercury in fish samples. The development is published in the journal Chemical Communications. "The polymer remains in contact with samples extracted directly from the fish for around 20 minutes. Then, while is being irradiated with ultraviolet light, it emits a bluish light, which varies in intensity proportionally to the quantity of methylmercury and inorganic mercury present in the fish," explains Tomás Torroba, lead author of the paper. A portable polymer probe, which can be used in situ, was used to apply the technique to 2-gram samples from a range of fish species. The qualitative relationship between the mercury levels in fish and the increased fluorescence was verified using chemical analysis (called ICP-Mass). The research showed that the larger is the fish the higher are the levels of mercury: between 1.0 and 2.0 parts per million for swordfish, tuna and dogfish, around 0.5 ppm in conger eels and 0.2 ppm in panga. No mercury was found in farmed salmon. These are large fish and at the top of the food chain, but the metal is not present in captivity due to the lack of an industrial or natural source. The toxicity of fish depends on the amount mercury found in the fish presented in the diet. According to the recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the tolerable weekly intake of methylmercury should be no more than one serving containing amounts over 1.6 μg/kg (micrograms per kilogram of fish) or 4 μg/kg for inorganic mercury (this amount is close to the one detected in the study). However, the current trend for this limit is to be lowered. For example, the United States food safety agency, the FDA, goes beyond this and recommends consuming no more than one portion per week of fish containing concentrations over 1 μg/kg, a tendency other countries are likely to follow. "Contamination of above 0.5 ppm in a food is already thought to be a considerable level," Torroba explains. "Several of the fresh tuna and swordfish samples we analysed exceed and even double this amount. This is why experts recommend that pregnant women reduce their weekly intake of certain types of fish, such as swordfish, due to possible risks to the foetus." In this context, a study led by researchers from the Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research of the Community of Valencia (FISABIO, for its Spanish abbreviation) and the Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP, for its Spanish abbreviation) has shown that there is an association between prenatal mercury exposure and reduced placenta size and foetal growth. The study, carried out within the Environment and Childhood (INMA, for its Spanish initials) mother-child cohort project, aimed to evaluate this link using data on 1,869 newborns from different regions of Spain (Valencia, Sabadell, Asturias and Guipúzcoa). One of the largest studies carried out to date in order to determine mercury levels in umbilical cord blood samples and its association with different reproductive effects: measurements of foetal development (weight, height and head circumference at birth), placental weight, duration of pregnancy and risk of premature birth. The findings, published in the journal Environmental Research, show a relatively high average mercury concentration in umbilical cord blood (8.2 micrograms per litre), with a 24% of samples exceeding the WHO's provisional tolerable weekly intake equivalent. "A double in the cord blood mercury concentrations (e.g. a change in the concentration from 8 to 16 micrograms per litre) is associated to a 7.7 gram reduction in the weight of the placenta and also shows a pattern of negative association with the newborn's head circumference," explain Mario Murcia and Ferran Ballester, co-authors of the study. "However no relation was found with other parameters, such as duration of pregnancy." The results of the INMA project suggest that prenatal mercury exposure may, therefore, be affecting the development of the placenta and foetal growth. Although the magnitude of these potential effects is small, reduced placental weight has been linked to the risk of high blood pressure in adulthood. Head circumference, in turn, has been associated with subsequent cognitive development. Despite preventive and surveillance measures are been considered for foods, due to the positive effects on health that are also linked to consuming fish, the researchers urge for public health efforts in order to reduce human mercury emissions. José García-Calvo, Saúl Vallejos, Félix C. García, Josefa Rojo, José M. García, Tomás Torroba. "A smart material for the in situ detection of mercury in fish". Chemical Communications 52, 11915, 2016.


News Article | February 20, 2017
Site: phys.org

The presence of the toxic metal mercury in the environment comes from natural sources, however, in the last decades industrial waste has caused an increase in concentrations of the metal in some areas of the sea. In the food chain, mercury can be diluted either in organic form as methylmercury (MeHg+) or as an inorganic salt, the cation Hg2+. Now, researchers from the University of Burgos have created a fluorescent polymer, JG25, which can detect the presence of these two forms of mercury in fish samples. The development is published in the journal Chemical Communications. "The polymer remains in contact with samples extracted directly from the fish for around 20 minutes. Then, while is being irradiated with ultraviolet light, it emits a bluish light, which varies in intensity proportionally to the quantity of methylmercury and inorganic mercury present in the fish," explains Tomás Torroba, lead author of the paper. A portable polymer probe, which can be used in situ, was used to apply the technique to 2-gram samples from a range of fish species. The qualitative relationship between the mercury levels in fish and the increased fluorescence was verified using chemical analysis (called ICP-Mass). The research showed that the larger is the fish the higher are the levels of mercury: between 1.0 and 2.0 parts per million for swordfish, tuna and dogfish, around 0.5 ppm in conger eels and 0.2 ppm in panga. No mercury was found in farmed salmon. These are large fish and at the top of the food chain, but the metal is not present in captivity due to the lack of an industrial or natural source. The toxicity of fish depends on the amount mercury found in the fish presented in the diet. According to the recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the tolerable weekly intake of methylmercury should be no more than one serving containing amounts over 1.6 µg/kg (micrograms per kilogram of fish) or 4 µg/kg for inorganic mercury (this amount is close to the one detected in the study). However, the current trend for this limit is to be lowered. For example, the United States food safety agency, the FDA, goes beyond this and recommends consuming no more than one portion per week of fish containing concentrations over 1 µg/kg, a tendency other countries are likely to follow. "Contamination of above 0.5 ppm in a food is already thought to be a considerable level," Torroba explains. "Several of the fresh tuna and swordfish samples we analysed exceed and even double this amount. This is why experts recommend that pregnant women reduce their weekly intake of certain types of fish, such as swordfish, due to possible risks to the foetus." In this context, a study led by researchers from the Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research of the Community of Valencia (FISABIO, for its Spanish abbreviation) and the Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP, for its Spanish abbreviation) has shown that there is an association between prenatal mercury exposure and reduced placenta size and foetal growth. The study, carried out within the Environment and Childhood (INMA, for its Spanish initials) mother-child cohort project, aimed to evaluate this link using data on 1,869 newborns from different regions of Spain (Valencia, Sabadell, Asturias and Guipúzcoa). One of the largest studies carried out to date in order to determine mercury levels in umbilical cord blood samples and its association with different reproductive effects: measurements of foetal development (weight, height and head circumference at birth), placental weight, duration of pregnancy and risk of premature birth. The findings, published in the journal Environmental Research, show a relatively high average mercury concentration in umbilical cord blood (8.2 micrograms per litre), with a 24% of samples exceeding the WHO's provisional tolerable weekly intake equivalent. "A double in the cord blood mercury concentrations (e.g. a change in the concentration from 8 to 16 micrograms per litre) is associated to a 7.7 gram reduction in the weight of the placenta and also shows a pattern of negative association with the newborn's head circumference," explain Mario Murcia and Ferran Ballester, co-authors of the study. "However no relation was found with other parameters, such as duration of pregnancy." The results of the INMA project suggest that prenatal mercury exposure may, therefore, be affecting the development of the placenta and foetal growth. Although the magnitude of these potential effects is small, reduced placental weight has been linked to the risk of high blood pressure in adulthood. Head circumference, in turn, has been associated with subsequent cognitive development. Despite preventive and surveillance measures are been considered for foods, due to the positive effects on health that are also linked to consuming fish, the researchers urge for public health efforts in order to reduce human mercury emissions. Explore further: Mirroring a drop in emissions, mercury in tuna also declines More information: José García-Calvo et al. A smart material for the in situ detection of mercury in fish, Chem. Commun. (2016). DOI: 10.1039/C6CC05977E


News Article | March 17, 2016
Site: phys.org

This figure shows how microbiota species are interchangeable in terms of functions by means of the metabolites produced by the action of gene products contained in the gut bacteria. Credit: Moya and Ferrer/Trends in Microbiology 2016 Turnover is to be expected in the gut—as soon as one bacterium leaves, another is ready to divide and take its place. The question, explored in a Review published March 17 in Trends in Microbiology, part of a special issue on microbial endurance, is how our gut remains healthy under this constantly enacted succession plan. A growing body of research indicates that different species of microbes fulfil the same functions in the gut, ensuring stability in the face of constant disturbance. Humans and their microbes are part of an ancient symbiotic relationship. We provide our gut bacteria with a place to live and nutrients to grow, while they help us break down food and fight off more pathogenic invaders. Daily changes such as meals or exercise may cause some of our intestinal tenants to die off, but these populations have evolved to hold steady, regrow, or be replaced with similarly acting bacteria. Even with a revolving door of bacterial species, our bodies continue to function normally. But this is not always the case. At least 50 disorders are associated with gut microbes that have been knocked out of balance, and many potential treatments—from probiotics to fecal transplants—depend on the idea that a person's microbiota can be changed for the better. The problem is that even with the improvements associated with these therapies, they are not long lasting. There's something that brings an organism's microbiome back to a base point. "You and I will have different microbes in our bodies, so there are some kind of genetic factors in the human host that make individuals more susceptible to harboring particular bacteria," says Review coauthor Andrés Moya, a geneticist with an interest in evolutionary biology at FISABIO-Universitat de València in Spain. "We don't understand these differences yet, and it's an area that needs to be better studied." Moya and second coauthor Manuel Ferrer of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, also in Spain, say that most of our research focus on gut microbes is on looking at their individual functions and the diversity of gut microbes in different populations. For example, we know that lean (under antibiotic treatment) and obese individuals have interchangable types of bacteria related to breaking down sugar or processing carbohydrates. What we don't know is what role these bacteria play in the larger microbiome community. The researchers make the case for studying the human microbiota as an intestinal ecosystem, by concentrating more on how the various species work with one another and our own cells. Recent work has shown tremendous genetic transfer between the bacteria of the gut, indicating that they have evolved specialized core functions. This top-down approach could help us understand the role these bacteria play in the human body and what leads to clinical symptoms when they are in dysbiosis. "When we are born, we are not alone. We already have different bacterial species that are interacting with our human cells—they are not independent, trying to survive in our gut, they are forming something like a superspecies," says Moya, also a researcher from the Genomics and Health Area of the FISABIO Foundation. "The microbiome may be the last human organ to be studied." Explore further: Gut microbiome shapes change in human health and disease research More information: Trends in Microbiology, Moya and Ferrer: "Functional Redundancy-Induced Stability of Gut Microbiota Subjected to Disturbance" dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2016.02.002


Merida S.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Palacios E.,FISABIO | Navea A.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Bosch-Morell F.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2015

Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution. © 2015 Salvador Mérida et al.


PubMed | FISABIO and CEU Cardenal Herrera University
Type: | Journal: Mediators of inflammation | Year: 2015

Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution.

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