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Wang J.W.,McGill University | Mark S.,First Nations and Inuit Health Branch | Henderson M.,McGill University | O'Loughlin J.,University of Montreal | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Obesity | Year: 2013

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is linked to weight gain and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in children, but whether these associations are modified by excess weight and glucose tolerance status in children is not known. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between SSB intake and MetS components among children above and below the 85th body mass index (BMI) percentile and those with and without impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods: Data were from the QUébec Adiposity and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth study (2005-2008). Caucasian children aged 8-10 years (n = 632) were recruited from 1040 primary schools in Québec, Canada. SSB consumption was assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls, body fat mass by dual-energy absorptiometry, physical activity by 7-d accelerometer. Multivariate linear regressions were used, with age, sex, fat mass index and physical activity as covariates, including waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), concentrations of triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as outcome variables. Results: Among overweight children, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 0.1-unit higher HOMA-IR (P = 0.009) and a 1.1-mm Hg higher SBP (P = 0.001). In children with IGT, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 1.4-mm Hg higher SBP and a 4.0-cm higher WC (P

Legrand M.,Environment Canada | Feeley M.,Health Products and Food Branch | Tikhonov C.,First Nations and Inuit Health Branch | Schoen D.,Environment Canada | Li-Muller A.,Environment Canada
Canadian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) from fish and marine mammal consumption continues to present a public health concern. To date, developmental neurotoxicity is the most sensitive health outcome, forming the basis for health-risk assessments and the derivation of biomonitoring guidance values. This article summarizes existing Health Canada MeHg blood guidance values for general population and expands them to include a harmonized provisional interim blood guidance value of 8 μg/L based on the existing provisional Tolerable Daily Intake for children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Associated public health actions, according to age, sex, and level of exposure are recommended. © 2010 Canadian Public Health Association.

Hossack F.,First Nations and Inuit Health Branch | An H.,University of Alberta
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2014

Cash is often used in economic experiments as an incentive to encourage realistic decision making or to compensate participants for their time. However, in many less developed countries, remunerating participants with cash can upset existing relationships with local institutions. In cases where the use of cash is not feasible, an alternative type of payment is required. Using a framed field experiment in Odisha, India (formerly Orissa), we explore an alternative payment method, in-kind, where typical household items are used in place of cash. We compare the differences in the valuation of yield stabilizing seed traits between in-kind and cash. Our results suggest that farmers are willing to pay less for seeds when they are paid cash than when they are paid in-kind. Bids are higher by 1.18 Indian Rupees when farmers are paid in-kind, corresponding to about a 7 per cent higher valuation. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.

Pollock S.L.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Sagan M.,First Nations and Inuit Health Manitoba Region | Oakley L.,First Nations and Inuit Health Manitoba Region | Fontaine J.,First Nations and Inuit Health Branch | Poffenroth L.,First Nations and Inuit Health Manitoba Region
Canadian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: First Nations communities in Manitoba were significantly affected by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) in 2009. Our objective was to conduct an epidemiologic investigation of a pH1N1 outbreak in one remote First Nations community (population 3,300) in northern Manitoba to inform a timely public health response and provide recommendations for preventing future outbreaks. Methods: Chart reviews were conducted at the nursing station for patients meeting the influenza-like illness (ILI) case definition during the study period (April 20 to June 11, 2009). Descriptive analyses examined age, gender, clinical presentation, management, outcomes and risk factors. Comparisons were made for hospitalized versus non-hospitalized cases and laboratory-confirmed versus possible cases using Pearson's chi-square test for gender and symptoms and using a t-test for age. Results: There were 180 ILI cases, including 23 laboratory-confirmed cases of pH1N1. Forty percent of children <1 year old in the community and 9.4% of pregnant women presented to the nursing station with ILI. Most ILI cases were managed through the community nursing station, although 18.3% of cases (n=33) were medically evacuated and 16.1% (n=29) were hospitalized. There were no differences between hospitalized versus non-hospitalized or laboratory-confirmed versus possible cases. Risk factors identified in a subset of cases included exposure to an individual with ILI prior to illness onset, overcrowding and inadequate access to household water. Conclusions: Early arrival and rapid transmission of pH1N1 rendered usual non-pharmacological control measures largely ineffective. Recommendations for prevention of future outbreaks include an effective communications strategy and daily surveillance for disease detection and monitoring. Key determinants of health should be addressed in remote First Nations communities to prevent disease and protect the health of these populations. © Canadian Public Health Association, 2012.

Nilsson L.M.,Umea University | Destouni G.,University of Stockholm | Dudarev A.A.,Northwest Public Health Research Center | Mulvad G.,University of Greenland | And 5 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2013

This perspective paper argues for an urgent need to monitor a set of 12 concrete, measurable indicators of food and water security in the Arctic over time. Such a quantitative indicator approach may be viewed as representing a reductionist rather than a holistic perspective, but is nevertheless necessary for actually knowing what reality aspects to monitor in order to accurately understand, quantify, and be able to project critical changes to food and water security of both indigenous and non-indigenous people in the Arctic. More relevant indicators may be developed in the future, taking us further toward reconciliation between reductionist and holistic approaches to change assessment and understanding. However, the potential of such further development to improved holistic change assessment is not an argument not to urgently start to monitor and quantify the changes in food and water security indicators that are immediately available and adequate for the Arctic context. © The Author(s) 2013.

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