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Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Shay C.M.,Northwestern University | Van Horn L.,Northwestern University | Stamler J.,Northwestern University | Dyer A.R.,Northwestern University | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Background: Clinical trial data show that reduction in total energy intake enhances weight loss regardless of the macronutrient composition of the diet. Few studies have documented dietary patterns or nutrient intakes that favor leanness [BMI (in kg/m 2) ≤25] in free-living populations. Objective: This investigation examined associations of usual energy, food, and nutrient intakes with BMI among US participants of the International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Design: The INTERMAP is an international cross-sectional study of dietary factors and blood pressure in men and women (ages 40-59 y) that includes 8 US population samples. The present study included data from 1794 Americans who were not consuming a special diet and who provided four 24-h dietary recalls and 2 timed 24-h urine collections. Multivariable linear regression with the residual method was used to adjust for energy intake; sex-specific associations were assessed for dietary intakes and urinary excretions with BMI adjusted for potential confounders including physical activity. Results: Lower energy intake was associated with lower BMI in both sexes. Univariately, higher intakes of fresh fruit, pasta, and rice and lower intakes of meat were associated with lower BMI; these associations were attenuated in multivariable analyses. Lower urinary sodium and intakes of total and animal protein, dietary cholesterol, saturated fats, and heme iron and higher urinary potassium and intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and magnesium were associated with lower BMI in both sexes. Conclusion: The consumption of foods higher in nutrient-dense carbohydrate and lower in animal protein and saturated fat is associated with lower total energy intakes, more favorable micronutrient intakes, and lower BMI. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Nakamura K.,Kanazawa Medical University | Miura K.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Nakagawa H.,Kanazawa Medical University | Okamura T.,Keio University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of hypertension on hospitalization risk and medical expenditure according to treatment status in a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 314 622 beneficiaries of the medical insurance system in Japan, aged 40-69 years, without a history of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or end-stage renal disease were classified into seven blood pressure categories. These categories were used to compare the risk of undergoing hospitalization in the 1 year after the baseline survey and to examine the percentage of inpatient medical expenditure attributable to overall hypertension relative to total medical expenditure in the study population. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 6.6% of men and 5.1% of women were hospitalized. In men and women aged 40-54 years, cases of hypertension, especially grade 3 untreated hypertension, led to more frequent hospitalization, compared with optimal blood pressure. Individuals who were hospitalized, especially long-term, incurred considerably higher medical expenditure compared with those who were not hospitalized, regardless of their hypertension status. In women aged 55-69 years, there was little variation in hospitalization risk across blood pressure categories. The inpatient medical expenditure attributable to overall hypertension represented 7.2 and 6.9% of the total medical expenditure for men aged 40-54 and 55-69 years, whereas it represented 2.8 and 3.8% for women, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although cases of hypertension were an economic burden especially in men, grade 3 untreated hypertension was more likely to incur extremely high medical expenditure as a result of hospitalization, compared with other cases. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source

Tsukinoki R.,Osaka Medical College | Okamura T.,Keio University | Watanabe M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Kokubo Y.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension

BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke. However, the hazards of their coexistence are not fully understood in Asian populations. We investigated whether the relationship between BP and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes are modified by LDL-C level in a Japanese population.METHODS Individuals aged 30-79 years (n = 5,151) were classified into 6 groups according to LDL-C levels (<140 and ≥140mg/dL or lipid medication) and BP levels (optimal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension; reference: low LDL-C and optimal BP). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated after adjusting for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. The effect modification of LDL-C on BP-CVD association was assessed using likelihood ratio tests.RESULTS There were 264 CAD and 215 ischemic stroke events during 13 years of follow-up. With low LDL-C, the HRs of prehypertension and hypertension for CAD were 2.01 and 4.71, respectively. Similar trends of HRs were observed with high LDL-C (optimal BP = 2.09, prehypertension = 3.45, hypertension = 5.94). However, the HRs for ischemic stroke did not differ between normal and high LDL-C levels at the same BP level. The apparent effect modification of LDL-C was not observed in the BP-CVD association in either CAD (P = 0.48) or ischemic stroke (P = 0.39).CONCLUSIONS The HRs for CAD in prehypertensive and hypertensive groups were higher than those in the optimal BP group at the same LDL-C levels in a Japanese population; however, there was no statistical effect modification of LDL-C on the BP-CAD association. © 2014 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Asayama K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Asayama K.,Tohoku University | Satoh M.,Tohoku University | Murakami Y.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 10 more authors.

To evaluate the cardiovascular mortality risk in association with blood pressure level among people with and without antihypertensive treatment, we performed the participant-level meta-analysis that included 39 705 Japanese from 6 cohorts (58.4% women; mean age, 60.1 years; 20.4% treated). Multivariable-adjusted Cox models were used to analyze the risk of cardiovascular mortality and its subtypes among 6 blood pressure levels according to recent guidelines, optimal to Grade 3 hypertension, and the usage of antihypertensive medication at baseline. During median 10.0 years of follow-up, there were 2032 cardiovascular deaths (5.1 per 1000 person-years), of which 410 deaths were coronary heart disease, 371 were heart failure, and 903 deaths were stroke. Treated participants had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios, 1.50; 95% confidence intervals, 1.36-1.66), coronary heart disease (hazard ratios, 1.53; confidence intervals, 1.23-1.90), heart failure (hazard ratios, 1.39; confidence intervals, 1.09-1.76), and stroke (hazard ratios, 1.48; confidence intervals, 1.28-1.72) compared with untreated people. Among untreated participants, the risks increased linearly with an increment of blood pressure category (P≤0.011). The risk increments per blood pressure category were higher in young participants (<60 years; 22% to 79%) than those in old people (≥60 years; 7% to 15%) with significant interaction for total cardiovascular, heart failure, and stroke mortality (P≤0.026). Among treated participants, the significant linear association was also observed for cardiovascular mortality (P=0.0003), whereas no stepwise increase in stroke death was observed (P=0.19). The risks of cardiovascular mortality were ≈1.5-fold high in participants under antihypertensive medication. More attention should be paid to the residual cardiovascular risks in treated patients. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Sakurai M.,Kanazawa Medical University | Sakurai M.,Northwestern University | Saitoh S.,Sapporo Medical University | Miura K.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 11 more authors.
Diabetes Care

Objective - Associations between HbA1c and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported mainly in Western countries. It is not clear whether HbA1c measurements are useful for assessing CVD mortality risk in East Asian populations. Research Design and Methods - The risk for cardiovascular death was evaluated in a large cohort of participants selected randomly from the overall Japanese population. A total of 7,120 participants (2,962men and 4,158 women; mean age 52.3 years) free of previous CVD were followed for 15 years. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs among categories of HbA1c (<5.0%, 5.0-5.4%, 5.5-5.9%, 6.0-6.4%, and ≥6.5%) for participants without treatment for diabetes and HRs for participants with diabetes were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results - During the study, there were 1,104 deaths, including 304 from CVD, 61 from coronary heart disease, and 127 from stroke (78 from cerebral infarction, 25 from cerebral hemorrhage, and 24 from unclassified stroke). Relations to HbA1c with all-cause mortality and CVD death were graded and continuous, and multivariate-adjusted HRs for CVD death in participants with HbA1c 6.0-6.4% and ≥6.5%were 2.18 (95% CI 1.22-3.87) and 2.75 (1.43-5.28), respectively, compared with participants with HbA1c <5.0%. Similar associations were observed between HbA1c and death from coronary heart disease and death from cerebral infarction. Conclusions - High HbA1c levels were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality and death from CVD, coronary heart disease, and cerebral infarction in general East Asian populations, as in Western populations. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source

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