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Stamler J.,Northwestern University | Brown I.J.,Public Health England | Daviglus M.L.,Northwestern University | Miura K.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: Available data have indicated independent direct relations of dietary animal protein and meat to the blood pressure (BP) of individuals. Objective: In this study, we aimed to assess whether BP is associated with the intake of dietary amino acids higher relatively in animal than in vegetable protein (alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, lysine, methionine, and threonine). Design: The study was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study that involved 4680 persons aged 40-59 y from 17 random population samples in the People's Republic of China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. BP was measured 8 times at 4 visits; dietary data (83 nutrients and 18 amino acids) were from four 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine collections. Results: Dietary glycine and alanine (the percentage of total protein intake) were considered singly related directly to BP; with these 2 amino acids together in regression models (from model 1, which was controlled for age, sex, and sample, to model 5, which was controlled for 16 possible confounders), glycine, but not alanine, was significantly related to BP. Estimated average BP differences associated with a 2-SD higher glycine intake (0.71 g/24 h) were 2.0-3.0-mm Hg systolic BP (z = 2.97-4.32) stronger in Western than in East Asian participants. In Westerners, meat was the main dietary source of glycine but not in East Asians (Chinese: grains/flour and rice/noodles; Japanese: fish/shellfish and rice/noodles). Conclusion: Dietary glycine may have an independent adverse effect on BP, which possibly contributes to direct relations of animal protein and meat to BP. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.

Hayakawa T.,Fukushima Medical University | Okamura T.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Okayama A.,First Institute for Health Promotion and Health Care | Kanda H.,Fukushima Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis | Year: 2010

Aim: To clarify the relationship between the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors and the 5-year decline in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) among a cohort representative of the Japanese population aged 65 years and over. Methods: An IADL survey was performed by public health centers throughout Japan. Study subjects were elderly men and women living in districts under the jurisdiction of collaborating health centers. Subjects were invited to participate in the IADL survey assessed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence twice in 1995 and in 2000; 1222 participants were eligible for the analysis. The relationship between the number of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, obesity and smoking, at baseline and the 5-year difference in IADL scores was examined by linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Results: Decrease in IADL scores was larger in those with cardiovascular risk factors than in those without. The multivariable odds ratio (OR) for decreased IADL after adding one CVD risk factor was 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.29) after adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption and TMIG score at baseline. Among participants who were regarded as physically independent with respect to basic ADL in the baseline survey, the odds ratio was also similar and significant. Conclusion: Preventive interventions directed against cardiovascular risk factors, especially against their accumulation, may contribute to maintaining IADL in the Japanese elderly.

Inohara T.,Keio University | Kohsaka S.,Keio University | Okamura T.,Keio University | Watanabe M.,National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Atrial premature complexes (APC) are among the most frequently encountered electrocardiographic abnormalities. However, their prognostic value among healthy individuals is unclear. This study aimed to clarify the role of APC in predicting cardiovascular events in a large Japanese community cohort using long-term follow-up data. Methods: National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease And its Trends in the Aged, 1990-2005, (NIPPON DATA 90) was a large cohort study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Japan. A total of 7692 otherwise healthy participants with no history of myocardial infarction, stroke, atrial fibrillation, or atrial flutter were enrolled (men, 41.5%; mean age, 52.5 ± 13.7 years). Results: A total of 64 (0.8%) participants had at least one beat of APC on screening 12-lead electrocardiogram. During the follow-up of 14.0 ± 2.9 years (total, 107,474 patient-years), 338 deaths occurred due to CVD. The association between APC and CVD outcome was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Cox regression analysis revealed that the presence of APC was an independent predictor for CVD deaths (HR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.12-3.66, P = 0.019). The association of APC on CVD death was more evident in participants with hypertension (P-value for interaction, 0.03). Conclusions: APC recorded during the screening electrocardiogram are significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD deaths in a Japanese community-dwelling population and are a strong prognostic factor for hypertensive participants. © 2013 Inohara et al.

Miyagawa N.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Miura K.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Okuda N.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition | Kadowaki T.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 14 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2014

Background: Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn3FA) among Japanese is generally higher than that in Western populations. However, little is known whether an inverse association of LCn3FA with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk exists in a population with higher LCn3FA intake. Objective: To investigate the association between LCn3FA intake and the long-term risk of CVDs in a Japanese general population. Methods: We followed-up a total of 9190 individuals (56.2% women, mean age 50.0 years) randomly selected from 300 areas across Japan and free from CVDs at baseline. Dietary LCn3FA intake was estimated using household weighed food records. Cox models were used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) according to sex specific quartiles of LCn3FA intake. Results: During 24-year follow-up (192,897 person-years), 879 cardiovascular deaths were observed. The median daily intake of LCn3FA was 0.37%kcal (0.86g/day). Adjusted HR for CVD mortality was lower in the highest quartile of LCn3FA intake (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66-0.96) compared with the lowest quartile, and the trend was statistically significant (P=0.038). The similar but statistically non-significant trends were observed for coronary heart disease death and stroke death. In analyses by age groups, the inverse associations of LCn3FA intake with the risk of total CVD death and stroke death were significant in younger individuals (30-59 years at baseline). Conclusion: LCn3FA intake was inversely and independently associated the long-term risk of total CVD mortality in a representative sample of Japanese with high LCn3FA intake. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Turin T.C.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Kita Y.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Rumana N.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Nakamura Y.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 9 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2010

Background and Purpose-: Population-based information on the epidemiology of ischemic stroke (IS) subtypes is scant. In this study, we characterized IS subtypes in terms of incidence, time trend, and risk factor profiles in a community-based population. Methods-: We obtained data from the Takashima Stroke Registry on approximately 55 000 residents of Takashima County in central Japan and calculated age-adjusted stroke incidence rates for different IS subtypes. We determined the incidence time trend by calculating the average annual change across years and also compared risk factors between subtypes. Results-: There were 1389 first-ever ischemic strokes registered during 1988 to 2004. Lacunar infarction was the most frequent etiology (54.1%) followed by cardioembolic infarction (22.9%). Age-adjusted incidence rates for different IS subtypes were lacunar, 77.1; cardioembolic, 31.5; and nonlacunar, 29.7/10 person-years. The average annual change was not significant for the IS subtypes except for nonlacunar infarction, which showed a decreasing trend. Risk factor analysis showed that patients with lacunar infarctions were younger and less likely to have a history of transient ischemic attack or a drinking habit than patients with nonlacunar infarctions. Conclusion-: Lacunar infarct was the most common IS subtype in our population. We found no significant change in the incidence of subtypes during the study, except a decrease in nonlacunar infarction. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Nakamura Y.,Kyoto Women's University | Nakamura Y.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Okamura T.,Keio University | Higashiyama A.,Hyogo Medical School | And 8 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2012

Background: Although clockwise rotation and counterclockwise rotation are distinct findings of the ECG, their prognostic significance is rarely studied. Methods and Results: We studied prognostic values of clockwise and counterclockwise rotation on total, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and subtype mortality using the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Noncommunicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged, 1980-2004 (NIPPON DATA80) database with a 24-year follow-up. At baseline in 1980, data were collected on study participants aged ≥30 years from randomly selected areas in Japan. We followed 9067 participants (44% men; mean age, 51 years). During the 24-year follow-up, mortality was as follows: 2581 total, 887 CVD, 179 coronary heart disease, 173 heart failure, and 411 stroke. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) with the use of the Cox model including biochemical and other ECG variables revealed that clockwise rotation was significantly positively associated with heart failure in men and women combined (HR=1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-2.83; P=0.013), CVD in men and in men and women combined (HR=1.49; 95% CI, 1.12-1.98; P=0.007 in men; HR=1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.59; P=0.030 in combined), and total mortality in men and in men and women combined (HR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.49; P=0.0496inmen; HR=1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32; P=0.045 in combined). Counterclockwise rotation was significantly inversely associated stroke in men and women combined (HR=0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.96; P=0.017), CVD in men and in men and women combined (HR=0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.94; P=0.011 in men; HR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.94; P=0.006 in combined), and total mortality in women (HR=0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.98; P=0.023). Conclusions: We found a significant positive association of clockwise rotation and a significant inverse association of counterclockwise rotation with CVD mortality in men and in men and women combined, independent of confounding factors including other ECG changes. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

PubMed | Osaka Kyoiku University, Hyogo College of Medicine, Keio University, First Institute for Health Promotion and Health Care and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of preventive cardiology | Year: 2014

Various cohort studies have shown a close association between long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes and individual electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities such as axial, structural, and repolarization changes. The combined effect of these ECG abnormalities, each assumed to be benign, has not been thoroughly investigated.Community-dwelling Japanese residents from the National Integrated Project for Perspective Observation of Non-Communicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged, 1980-2004 and 1990-2005 (NIPPON DATA80 and 90), were included in this study. Baseline ECG findings were classified using the Minnesota Code and categorized into axial (left axis deviation, clockwise rotation), structural (left ventricular hypertrophy, atrial enlargement), and repolarization (minor and major ST-T changes) abnormalities. The hazard ratios of the cumulative impacts of ECG findings on long-term CVD death were estimated by stratified Cox proportional hazard models, including adjustments for cohort strata. In all, 16,816 participants were evaluated. The average age was 51.213.5 years; 42.7% participants were male. The duration of follow up was 300,924 person-years (mean 17.95.8 years); there were 1218 CVD deaths during that time. Overall, 4203 participants (25.0%) had one or more categorical ECG abnormalities: 3648 (21.7%) had a single abnormality, and 555 (3.3%) had two or more. The risk of CVD mortality increased as the number of abnormalities accumulated (single abnormality HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13-1.48; 2 abnormalities HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.73-2.53).Individual ECG abnormalities had an additive effect in predicting CVD outcome risk in our large-scale cohort study.

PubMed | Osaka Kyoiku University, Shiga University of Medical Science, Osaka City University, Keio University and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cardiology | Year: 2014

Increased resting heart rate (RHR) independently predicts cardiovascular mortality. Meanwhile, long-chain n-3 fatty acids (LCn3FAs) have a cardioprotective effect. Our aim was to evaluate whether higher LCn3FAs intake attenuates the elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with increased RHR.We conducted a population-based 24-year prospective cohort study of Japanese, whose LCn3FAs intake is relatively high. Study participants included 8807 individuals aged 30-95 years from randomly selected areas across Japan without cardiovascular diseases and anti-hypertensive drugs at baseline. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular mortality, and the secondary endpoints were cardiac and stroke mortality during 24 years of follow-up. Individual dietary LCn3FAs intake was estimated from household-based 3-day weighed food records. RHR was obtained from 3 consecutive R-wave intervals on 12-lead electrocardiography. Cox models were used to estimate the multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusting for possible confounders.During the follow-up period, 617 cardiovascular deaths were observed. The median daily intake of LCn3FAs was 0.37% kcal (0.86g/day). The interaction between dietary LCn3FAs intake and RHR in the risk of cardiovascular mortality was statistically significant (p=0.033). The risk of cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher in the low-intake group (<0.37%kcal) with an RHR >85beats/min (bpm) [hazard ratio (HR), 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.43], but not in the high-intake group (0.37%kcal) with an RHR >85bpm (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.61-1.38), compared with those in the high-intake group with an RHR <70bpm. Similar results were observed with stroke mortality, but not with cardiac mortality.The risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with increased RHR is elevated in participants with low dietary LCn3FAs intake, but not in participants with high dietary LCn3FAs intake in a representative Japanese general population. These results suggest that high dietary LCn3FAs intake may prevent cardiovascular mortality associated with increased RHR.

Kokubo Y.,National Cardiovascular Center | Watanabe M.,National Cardiovascular Center | Higashiyama A.,National Cardiovascular Center | Nakao Y.M.,National Cardiovascular Center | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To prevent stroke, strategies for atrial fibrillation (AF) prevention and an early detection of AF by electrocardiogram are essential. However, only a limited prospective studies have examined the risk factors for AF, even in blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI), which are not clear among general populations. We investigated the impacts of BP and BMI on the risk of incident AF in a general population. METHODS A total of 6,906 participants (30-84 years) in the Suita Study were prospectively followed up for incident AF. Participants were diagnosed with AF if AF or atrial flutter was present on an electrocardiogram from a routine health examination (every 2 years) or if AF was indicated as a present illness from health examinations and/or medical records during follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. RESULTS During the 12.8-year follow-up, 253 incident AF events occurred. Compared with the systolic BP (SBP) < 120mm Hg and normal-weight, the adjusted HRs (95% confidence intervals; CIs) of incident AF in the systolic hypertension and the overweight (BMI ≥ 25kg/m2) groups were 1.74 (1.22-2.49) and 1.35 (1.01-1.80), respectively. Compared with SBP < 120mm Hg and normal weight, the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of incident AF in the SBP = 120-139mm Hg with overweight and the systolic hypertension with normal or overweight were 1.72 (1.01-2.91), 1.66 (1.10-2.50), and 2.31 (1.47-3.65), respectively (P for interaction = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Systolic prehypertension and overweight are associated with incident AF in Japanese population. The association between SBP and AF may be evident by overweight. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015.

Hisamatsu T.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Ohkubo T.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Ohkubo T.,Teikyo University | Miura K.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 12 more authors.
Circulation Journal | Year: 2013

Background: An early repolarization pattern, characterized by an elevation of the QRS-ST junction (J-point) on 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is associated with cardiac and sudden death. However, little is known about the prognostic significance of J-point elevation for various disease-specific cardiovascular outcomes, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results: To investigate the association between the presence of J-point elevation ≥0.1 mV and various disease-specific cardiovascular outcomes, we conducted a 15-year prospective study in a representative general Japanese population of 7,630 individuals (41% men, mean age 52.4 years) who participated in the National Survey of Circulatory Disorders. Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for possible confounding factors. J-point elevation was present in 264 individuals (3.5%) and was associated with an increased risk of cardiac death (adjusted HR, 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-4.58; P=0.002) and death from CAD (adjusted HR, 4.66; 95% CI 2.30-9.46; P<0.001). In a subgroup analysis by age, the association between J-point elevation and cardiovascular outcomes was more remarkable in middle-aged (<60 years) than in older individuals (≥60 years) (all P for interaction <0.05). Conclusions: J-point elevation on standard 12-lead ECG was an independent predictor of cardiac death and death from CAD in a representative sample of the general Japanese population, particularly among the middle-aged.

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