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Inohara T.,Keio University | Kohsaka S.,Keio University | Okamura T.,Keio University | Watanabe M.,National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Atrial premature complexes (APC) are among the most frequently encountered electrocardiographic abnormalities. However, their prognostic value among healthy individuals is unclear. This study aimed to clarify the role of APC in predicting cardiovascular events in a large Japanese community cohort using long-term follow-up data. Methods: National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease And its Trends in the Aged, 1990-2005, (NIPPON DATA 90) was a large cohort study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Japan. A total of 7692 otherwise healthy participants with no history of myocardial infarction, stroke, atrial fibrillation, or atrial flutter were enrolled (men, 41.5%; mean age, 52.5 ± 13.7 years). Results: A total of 64 (0.8%) participants had at least one beat of APC on screening 12-lead electrocardiogram. During the follow-up of 14.0 ± 2.9 years (total, 107,474 patient-years), 338 deaths occurred due to CVD. The association between APC and CVD outcome was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Cox regression analysis revealed that the presence of APC was an independent predictor for CVD deaths (HR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.12-3.66, P = 0.019). The association of APC on CVD death was more evident in participants with hypertension (P-value for interaction, 0.03). Conclusions: APC recorded during the screening electrocardiogram are significantly associated with an increased risk of CVD deaths in a Japanese community-dwelling population and are a strong prognostic factor for hypertensive participants. © 2013 Inohara et al.

Kokubo Y.,National Cardiovascular Center | Watanabe M.,National Cardiovascular Center | Higashiyama A.,National Cardiovascular Center | Nakao Y.M.,National Cardiovascular Center | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To prevent stroke, strategies for atrial fibrillation (AF) prevention and an early detection of AF by electrocardiogram are essential. However, only a limited prospective studies have examined the risk factors for AF, even in blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI), which are not clear among general populations. We investigated the impacts of BP and BMI on the risk of incident AF in a general population. METHODS A total of 6,906 participants (30-84 years) in the Suita Study were prospectively followed up for incident AF. Participants were diagnosed with AF if AF or atrial flutter was present on an electrocardiogram from a routine health examination (every 2 years) or if AF was indicated as a present illness from health examinations and/or medical records during follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. RESULTS During the 12.8-year follow-up, 253 incident AF events occurred. Compared with the systolic BP (SBP) < 120mm Hg and normal-weight, the adjusted HRs (95% confidence intervals; CIs) of incident AF in the systolic hypertension and the overweight (BMI ≥ 25kg/m2) groups were 1.74 (1.22-2.49) and 1.35 (1.01-1.80), respectively. Compared with SBP < 120mm Hg and normal weight, the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of incident AF in the SBP = 120-139mm Hg with overweight and the systolic hypertension with normal or overweight were 1.72 (1.01-2.91), 1.66 (1.10-2.50), and 2.31 (1.47-3.65), respectively (P for interaction = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Systolic prehypertension and overweight are associated with incident AF in Japanese population. The association between SBP and AF may be evident by overweight. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015.

Miyagawa N.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Miura K.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Okuda N.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition | Kadowaki T.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 14 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2014

Background: Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn3FA) among Japanese is generally higher than that in Western populations. However, little is known whether an inverse association of LCn3FA with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk exists in a population with higher LCn3FA intake. Objective: To investigate the association between LCn3FA intake and the long-term risk of CVDs in a Japanese general population. Methods: We followed-up a total of 9190 individuals (56.2% women, mean age 50.0 years) randomly selected from 300 areas across Japan and free from CVDs at baseline. Dietary LCn3FA intake was estimated using household weighed food records. Cox models were used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) according to sex specific quartiles of LCn3FA intake. Results: During 24-year follow-up (192,897 person-years), 879 cardiovascular deaths were observed. The median daily intake of LCn3FA was 0.37%kcal (0.86g/day). Adjusted HR for CVD mortality was lower in the highest quartile of LCn3FA intake (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66-0.96) compared with the lowest quartile, and the trend was statistically significant (P=0.038). The similar but statistically non-significant trends were observed for coronary heart disease death and stroke death. In analyses by age groups, the inverse associations of LCn3FA intake with the risk of total CVD death and stroke death were significant in younger individuals (30-59 years at baseline). Conclusion: LCn3FA intake was inversely and independently associated the long-term risk of total CVD mortality in a representative sample of Japanese with high LCn3FA intake. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Stamler J.,Northwestern University | Brown I.J.,Public Health England | Daviglus M.L.,Northwestern University | Miura K.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: Available data have indicated independent direct relations of dietary animal protein and meat to the blood pressure (BP) of individuals. Objective: In this study, we aimed to assess whether BP is associated with the intake of dietary amino acids higher relatively in animal than in vegetable protein (alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, lysine, methionine, and threonine). Design: The study was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study that involved 4680 persons aged 40-59 y from 17 random population samples in the People's Republic of China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. BP was measured 8 times at 4 visits; dietary data (83 nutrients and 18 amino acids) were from four 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine collections. Results: Dietary glycine and alanine (the percentage of total protein intake) were considered singly related directly to BP; with these 2 amino acids together in regression models (from model 1, which was controlled for age, sex, and sample, to model 5, which was controlled for 16 possible confounders), glycine, but not alanine, was significantly related to BP. Estimated average BP differences associated with a 2-SD higher glycine intake (0.71 g/24 h) were 2.0-3.0-mm Hg systolic BP (z = 2.97-4.32) stronger in Western than in East Asian participants. In Westerners, meat was the main dietary source of glycine but not in East Asians (Chinese: grains/flour and rice/noodles; Japanese: fish/shellfish and rice/noodles). Conclusion: Dietary glycine may have an independent adverse effect on BP, which possibly contributes to direct relations of animal protein and meat to BP. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.

Hisamatsu T.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Ohkubo T.,Shiga University of Medical Science | Ohkubo T.,Teikyo University | Miura K.,Shiga University of Medical Science | And 12 more authors.
Circulation Journal | Year: 2013

Background: An early repolarization pattern, characterized by an elevation of the QRS-ST junction (J-point) on 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is associated with cardiac and sudden death. However, little is known about the prognostic significance of J-point elevation for various disease-specific cardiovascular outcomes, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results: To investigate the association between the presence of J-point elevation ≥0.1 mV and various disease-specific cardiovascular outcomes, we conducted a 15-year prospective study in a representative general Japanese population of 7,630 individuals (41% men, mean age 52.4 years) who participated in the National Survey of Circulatory Disorders. Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for possible confounding factors. J-point elevation was present in 264 individuals (3.5%) and was associated with an increased risk of cardiac death (adjusted HR, 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-4.58; P=0.002) and death from CAD (adjusted HR, 4.66; 95% CI 2.30-9.46; P<0.001). In a subgroup analysis by age, the association between J-point elevation and cardiovascular outcomes was more remarkable in middle-aged (<60 years) than in older individuals (≥60 years) (all P for interaction <0.05). Conclusions: J-point elevation on standard 12-lead ECG was an independent predictor of cardiac death and death from CAD in a representative sample of the general Japanese population, particularly among the middle-aged.

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