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Huang C.,First Hospital of Ningbo City | He J.,First Hospital of Ningbo City | Chen Y.,First Hospital of Ningbo City | Zhang Y.,First Hospital of Ningbo City | Chen C.,First Hospital of Ningbo City
Journal of Surgical Research | Year: 2014

Background Activated microglia play an important role in neuroinflammation, which contributes to the neuronal damage found in many neurodegenerative diseases. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is an anesthetic used before surgical operations, but also exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on the respiratory and digestive system. In the present study, we investigated whether PHC produces similar anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia in the central nervous system. Materials and methods Microglial cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of various concentrations of PHC, SB203580 (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] inhibitor), and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (nuclear factor-kappa B [NF-κB] inhibitor). Markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effect of PHC on NF-κB activity was assessed with a NF-κB p50/p65 transcription factor assay kit. The involvement of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the anti-inflammatory effects of PHC was evaluated with a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for phospho-p38. Results PHC significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin 1β, and tumor necrosis factor α while upregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA in LPS-activated microglia. Moreover, PHC effectively inhibited the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. The activities of NF-κB and p38 MAPK in LPS-treated microglia were significantly lowered after pretreatment of PHC. Conclusions PHC inhibited the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators in microglia. These inhibitory effects of PHC may be mediated by blocking p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways in microglia. These preclinical findings may offer a novel therapeutic option to confine microglial overactivation in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Zhu H.,First Hospital of Ningbo City | Chen Y.,First Hospital of Ningbo City | Huang C.,First Hospital of Ningbo City | Han Y.,First Hospital of Ningbo City | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis | Year: 2015

Abstract A rapid and sensitive method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, and Sudan IV levels in rat whole blood. Cleanert C18 mixed-mode polymeric sorbent was used for effective solid-phase extraction cleanup. Separation was carried out on a reversed-phase C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water/0.1% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile as the mobile phase in gradient elution. Quantification was performed by an electrospray ionization source in the positive multiple reaction monitoring mode using D5-Sudan I as the internal standard. Calibration curves showed good linearity between 0.2 and 20.0 μg/L, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9990. The average recovery rates were between 93.05% and 114.98%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were within 6.2%. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2 μg/L. All the analytes were found to be stable in a series of stability studies. The proposed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of four Sudan dyes after oral administration to rats. © 2015 The Authors.

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