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Zhu M.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xiao S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 6 more authors.
Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Background: Memantine hydrochloride is a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist that may be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Aim: Compare the efficacy and safety of generic memantine hydrochloride produced in China to that of the imported proprietary version of the medication (Ebixa) in the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind randomized controlled trial 229 patients with moderate to severe AD were randomly assigned to a 16-week trial of either the generic preparation or the proprietary preparation of memantine hydrochloride. All participants were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after enrolment. The primary outcome variable was the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognition (ADAS-Cog) score. Secondary outcomes were scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale. Results: Sample sizes for the safety set (SS) analysis, full analysis set (FAS) and per protocol set (PPS) analysis were 112, 109 and 103 in the generic medication group, and 111, 107 and 101 in the proprietary medication group, respectively. The ADAS-Cog and ADL total scores at the end of weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 decreased significantly compared with baseline for both groups (p<0.001) and the MMSE total scores at the end of weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 increased significantly compared with baseline for both groups (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in ADAS-Cog total scores, ADL total scores and level of improvement based on the CGI scores between the two groups at any of the follow-up assessments. The occurrence of adverse events was 20.5% in the generic medication group and 27.0% in the proprietary medication group; this difference was not statistically significant (χ2=1.30, p=0.255). Conclusion: There are no significant differences in the effectiveness or safety between memantine that is generically produced in China and imported proprietary memantine in the treatment of individuals with moderate and severe AD during the first 16 weeks of treatment.


Wu Y.,First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical School | Chen T.,First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical School
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2016

Background Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small cerebrovascular lesions. More and more CMBs have been found in patients with ischemic stroke, dementia, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, as well as some normal elderly populations. The objective of this study is to summarize the main risk factor, impairment, and therapy of CMBs. Methods We searched and scanned all the literature with the keyword "cerebral microbleeds" or "CMBs" in the database of PubMed and Elsevier. Results The risks factors for CMBs are complicated, including those that cause large-vessel disease, such as hypertension and old age, and those that cause small-vessel disease, such as amyloid deposits, endothelial lesions, and atrial fibrillation. Moreover, drugs and therapies used to treat cerebrovascular diseases such as statin, intravenous thrombolysis, and coumarin may also increase risk of CMBs. The relationship between antiplatelet treatment and CMBs is now unclear. Gene polymorphisms have been considered to be associated with CMBs. Gene mutations involving collagen type IV alpha 1 and collagen type IV alpha 2, sortilin-related receptor gene, forkhead box C1, and paired-like homeodomain 2 were reported to affect CMBs with the modification of corresponding proteins and functions. The cognition impairment caused by CMBs draws great attention. White matter deterioration is the possible answer. However, different studies could not reach the same conclusion on the damage of cognition of CMBs. Conclusions Further research is needed to provide effectual therapeutic proposals for CMBs, which differ from the treatment for large-artery disease and dementia. © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Wang X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Wang X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang X.,University of Pittsburgh | Zhao K.,First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical School | And 9 more authors.
Bioelectromagnetics | Year: 2013

Adolescence is a critical developmental stage during which substantial remodeling occurs in brain areas involved in emotional and learning processes. Although a robust literature on the biological effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) has been documented, data on the effects of ELF-MF exposure during this period on cognitive functions remain scarce. In this study, early adolescent male mice were exposed from postnatal day (P) 23-35 to a 50Hz MF at 2mT for 60min/day. On P36-45, the potential effects of the MF exposure on spatial memory performance were examined using the Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks. The results showed that the MF exposure did not affect Y-maze performance but improved spatial learning acquisition and memory retention in the water maze task under the present experimental conditions. Bioelectromagnetics 34:275-284, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Yue X.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Wang L.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Wang R.,University of Science and Technology Beijing | Yu H.,First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical School
2012 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, BMEI 2012 | Year: 2012

Except the blood vessel in-out the cranial cavity and basicranial hole open onto skull, the cranial cavity can be totally regarded as one closed container. Intracranial Pressure (ICP) is fluctuant in brain. The cranial cavity will deform with the changing ICP, which is complex questions and can't be solved the analytical solution. As a very effective numerical method, the finite element is used to analyze the deformation of cranial cavity. Cranial cavity is the hollow sphere formed by the skull and the duramater. There are obvious interfaces among the various parts of outer compact bone, middle cancellous bone, inner compact bone and duramater. In this paper, the matrix of laminated structure and stress-strain relationship of laminated structure have been set up in the cranial cavity, which will be the foundation to analyze the actual deformation of human skull-duramater system with the finite-element software. © 2012 IEEE.

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