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Xu H.,University of Bristol | Oliveira-Sales E.B.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | McBride F.,University of Bristol | Liu B.,University of Bristol | And 10 more authors.
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2012

AimsEstablishing biochemical markers of pre-hypertension and early hypertension could help earlier diagnostics and therapeutic intervention. We assess dynamics of junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) expression in rat models of hypertension and test whether JAM-A expression could be driven by angiotensin (ANG) II and whether JAM-A contributes to the progression of hypertension. We also compare JAM-A expression in normo- and hypertensive humans.Methods and resultsIn pre-hypertensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), JAM-A protein was overexpressed in the brainstem microvasculature, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart. JAM-A upregulation at early and late stages was even greater in the stroke-prone SHR. However, JAM-A was not upregulated in leucocytes and platelets of SHRs. In Goldblatt 2K-1C hypertensive rats, JAM-A expression was augmented before any increase in blood pressure, and similarly JAM-A upregulation preceded hypertension caused by peripheral and central ANG II infusions. In SHRs, ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonism reduced JAM-A expression, but the vasodilator hydralazine did not. Body-wide downregulation of JAM-A with Vivo-morpholinos in juvenile SHRs delayed the progression of hypertension. In the human saphenous vein, JAM-A mRNA was elevated in hypertensive patients with untreated hypertension compared with normotensive patients but reduced in patients treated with renin-angiotensin system antagonists.ConclusionBody-wide upregulation of JAM-A in genetic and induced models of hypertension in the rat precedes the stable elevation of arterial pressure. JAM-A upregulation may be triggered by AT1 receptor-mediated signalling. An association of JAM-A with hypertension and sensitivity to blockers of ANG II signalling were also evident in humans. We suggest a prognostic and possibly a pathogenic role of JAM-A in arterial hypertension. © 2012 The Author. Source

Vaggi F.,Institute FIRC of Molecular Oncology | Vaggi F.,University of Trento | Disanza A.,Institute FIRC of Molecular Oncology | Milanesi F.,Institute FIRC of Molecular Oncology | And 10 more authors.
PLoS Computational Biology | Year: 2011

There is a body of literature that describes the geometry and the physics of filopodia using either stochastic models or partial differential equations and elasticity and coarse-grained theory. Comparatively, there is a paucity of models focusing on the regulation of the network of proteins that control the formation of different actin structures. Using a combination of in-vivo and in-vitro experiments together with a system of ordinary differential equations, we focused on a small number of well-characterized, interacting molecules involved in actin-dependent filopodia formation: the actin remodeler Eps8, whose capping and bundling activities are a function of its ligands, Abi-1 and IRSp53, respectively; VASP and Capping Protein (CP), which exert antagonistic functions in controlling filament elongation. The model emphasizes the essential role of complexes that contain the membrane deforming protein IRSp53, in the process of filopodia initiation. This model accurately accounted for all observations, including a seemingly paradoxical result whereby genetic removal of Eps8 reduced filopodia in HeLa, but increased them in hippocampal neurons, and generated quantitative predictions, which were experimentally verified. The model further permitted us to explain how filopodia are generated in different cellular contexts, depending on the dynamic interaction established by Eps8, IRSp53 and VASP with actin filaments, thus revealing an unexpected plasticity of the signaling network that governs the multifunctional activities of its components in the formation of filopodia. © 2011 Vaggi et al. Source

Crespo C.L.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Vernieri C.,Institute FIRC of Molecular Oncology | Keller P.J.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Garre M.,Institute FIRC of Molecular Oncology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2014

Inflammatory cells acquire a polarized phenotype to migrate towards sites of infection or injury. A conserved polarity complex comprising PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) relays extracellular polarizing cues to control cytoskeletal and signaling networks affecting morphological and functional polarization. However, there is no evidence that myeloid cells use PAR signaling to migrate vectorially in three-dimensional (3D) environments in vivo. Using genetically encoded bioprobes and high-resolution live imaging, we reveal the existence of F-actin oscillations in the trailing edge and constant repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) to direct leukocyte migration in wounded medaka fish larvae (Oryzias latipes). Genetic manipulation in live myeloid cells demonstrates that the catalytic activity of aPKC and the regulated interaction with PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for consistent F-actin oscillations, MTOC perinuclear mobility, aPKC repositioning and wound-directed migration upstream of Rho kinase (also known as ROCK or ROK) activation. We propose that the PAR complex coordinately controls cytoskeletal changes affecting both the generation of traction force and the directionality of leukocyte migration to sites of injury. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

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