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Colombo S.F.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Cardani S.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Maroli A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Vitiello A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2016

The GET (guided entry of tail-anchored proteins)/TRC (transmembrane recognition complex) pathway for tail-anchored protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been characterized in detail in yeast and is thought to function similarly in mammals, where the orthologue of the central ATPase, Get3, is known as TRC40 or Asna1. Get3/TRC40 function requires an ER receptor, which in yeast consists of the Get1/ Get2 heterotetramer and in mammals of the WRB protein (tryptophan-rich basic protein), homologous to yeast Get1, in combination with CAML (calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand), which is not homologous to Get2. To better characterize the mammalian receptor, we investigated the role of endogenous WRB and CAML in tail-anchored protein insertion as well as their association, concentration, and stoichiometry in rat liver microsomes and cultured cells. Functional proteoliposomes, reconstituted from a microsomal detergent extract, lost their activity when made with an extract depleted of TRC40-associated proteins or of CAML itself, whereas in vitro synthesized CAML and WRB together were sufficient to confer insertion competence to liposomes. CAML was found to be in ∼5-fold excess over WRB, and alteration of this ratio did not inhibit insertion. Depletion of each subunit affected the levels of the other one; in the case of CAML silencing, this effect was attributable to destabilization of the WRB transcript and not of WRB protein itself. These results reveal unanticipated complexity in the mutual regulation of the TRC40 receptor subunits and raise the question as to the role of the excess CAML in the mammalian ER. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Bianchi F.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Nicassio F.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Veronesi G.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Di Fiore P.P.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 2 more authors.
ecancermedicalscience | Year: 2012

Early diagnosis of lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography is an effective strategy to reduce cancer mortality in high-risk individuals. However, recruitment of at-risk individuals with asymptomatic lung cancer still remains challenging. We developed a minimal invasive serum test, based on the detection of circulating microRNAs, which can identify at-risk individuals with asymptomatic early stage nonsmall cell lung carcinomas with 80% accuracy. Copyright: © the authors; licensee ecancermedicalscience. Source

Pinato S.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Gatti M.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Scandiuzzi C.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Confalonieri S.,FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation | Penengo L.,University of Piemonte Orientale
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2011

Ubiquitination regulates important cellular processes, including the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. The complexity of the ubiquitin-mediated signals is decoded by ubiquitin receptors, which contain protein modules named ubiquitin binding domains (UBDs). We previously identified a new ubiquitin ligase, RNF168, involved in DDR and endowed with two UBDs named MIU (motif interacting with ubiquitin). Here we have provided the identification of a novel UBD, the UMI (UIM- and MIU-related UBD), present in RNF168, and characterized the interaction surface with ubiquitin, centered on two Leu residues. We have demonstrated that integrity of the UMI, in addition to the MIUs, is necessary for the proper localization of RNF168 and for ubiquitination of nuclear proteins, including histone H2A. Finally, we have shown that simultaneous inactivation of UMI and MIUs prevents the recruitment to DDR foci of the crucial downstream mediator 53BP1. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Hosono Y.,Tohoku University | Abe T.,FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation | Ishiai M.,Kyoto University | Islam M.N.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 9 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2014

RecQ family DNA helicases function in the maintenance of genome stability. Mice deficient in RecQL5, one of five RecQ helicases, show a cancer predisposition phenotype, suggesting that RecQL5 plays a tumor suppressor role. RecQL5 interacts with Rad51, a key factor in homologous recombination (HR), and displaces Rad51 from Rad51-single stranded DNA (ssDNA) filaments in vitro. However, the precise roles of RecQL5 in the cell remain elusive. Here, we present evidence suggesting that RecQL5 is involved in DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair. Chicken DT40 RECQL5 gene knockout (KO) cells showed sensitivity to ICL-inducing agents such as cisplatin (CDDP) and mitomycin C (MMC) and a higher number of chromosome aberrations in the presence of MMC than wild-type cells. The phenotypes of RECQL5 KO cells resembled those of Fanconi anemia gene KO cells. Genetic analysis using corresponding gene knockout cells showed that RecQL5 is involved in the FANCD1 (BRCA2)-dependent ICL repair pathway in which Rad51-ssDNA filament formation is promoted by BRCA2. The disappearance but not appearance of Rad51-foci was delayed in RECQL5 KO cells after MMC treatment. Deletion of Rad54, which processes the Rad51-ssDNA filament in HR, in RECQL5 KO cells increased sensitivity to CDDP and further delayed the disappearance of Rad51-foci, suggesting that RecQL5 and Rad54 have different effects on the Rad51-ssDNA filament. Furthermore, the frequency and variation of CDDP-induced gene conversion at the immunoglobulin locus were increased in RECQL5 KO cells. These results suggest that RecQL5 plays a role in regulating the incidence and quality of ICL-induced recombination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Heinrich C.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | Keller C.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | Boulay A.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | Vecchi M.,FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation | And 6 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2010

ErbB2 amplification and overexpression in breast cancer correlates with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. To find novel ErbB2-interacting proteins, we used stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture followed by peptide affinity pull-downs and identified specific binders using relative quantification by mass spectrometry. Copine-III, a member of a Ca 2-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family, was identified as binding to phosphorylated Tyr1248 of ErbB2. In breast cancer cells, Copine-III requires Ca 2 for binding to the plasma membrane, where it interacts with ErbB2 upon receptor stimulation, an interaction that is dependent on receptor activity. Copine-III also binds receptor of activated C kinase 1 and colocalizes with phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase at the leading edge of migrating cells. Importantly, knockdown of Copine-III in T47D breast cancer cells causes a decrease in Src kinase activation and ErbB2-dependent wound healing. Our data suggest that Copine-III is a novel player in the regulation of ErbB2-dependent cancer cell motility. In primary breast tumors, high CPNE3 RNA levels significantly correlate with ERBB2 amplification. Moreover, in an in situ tissue microarray analysis, we detected differential protein expression of Copine-III in normal versus breast, prostate and ovarian tumors, suggesting a more general role for Copine-III in carcinogenesis. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

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