Wallace M.E.,University of Vic |
Wallace M.E.,Fiona Elsey Cancer Research Institute |
Alcantara M.B.,University of Vic |
Alcantara M.B.,Fiona Elsey Cancer Research Institute |
And 7 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2015
The last few years has seen the burgeoning of a new category of therapeutics for cancer targeting immune regulatory pathways. Antibodies that block the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction are perhaps the most prominent of these new anti-cancer therapies, but several other inhibitory receptor ligand interactions have also shown promise as targets in clinical trials, including CTLA-4/CD80 and Lag-3/MHC class II. Related to this is a rapidly improving knowledge of 'regulatory' lymphocyte lineages, including NKT cells, MAIT cells, B regulatory cells and others. These cells have potent cytokine responses that can influence the functioning of other immune cells and many researchers believe that they could be effective targets for therapies designed to enhance immune responses to cancer. This review will outline our current understanding of FOXP3 + 'Tregs', NKT cells, MAIT cells and B regulatory cells immune regulatory cell populations in cancer, with a particular focus on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We will discuss evidence linking CLL with immune regulatory dysfunction and the potential for new therapies targeting regulatory cells. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Escudier B.,Institute Gustave Roussy |
Michaelson M.D.,Massachusetts General Hospital |
Motzer R.J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Hutson T.E.,Sammons Cancer Center |
And 12 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014
Background:In the AXIS trial, axitinib prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) vs sorafenib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) previously treated with sunitinib or cytokines.Methods:In post hoc analyses, patients were grouped by objective response to prior therapy (yes vs no), prior therapy duration (< vs ≥median), and tumour burden (baseline sum of the longest diameter < vs ≥median). PFS and overall survival (OS), and safety by type and duration of prior therapy were evaluated.Results:Response to prior therapy did not influence outcome with second-line axitinib or sorafenib. PFS was significantly longer in axitinib-treated patients who received longer prior cytokine treatment and sorafenib-treated patients with smaller tumour burden following sunitinib. Overall survival with the second-line therapy was longer in patients who received longer duration of prior therapy, although not significant in the sunitinib-to-axitinib sequence subgroup; OS was also longer in patients with smaller tumour burden, but not significant in the cytokine-to-axitinib sequence subgroup. Safety profiles differed modestly by type and duration of prior therapy.Conclusions:AXIS data suggest that longer duration of the first-line therapy generally yields better outcome with the second-line therapy and that lack of response to first-line therapy does not preclude positive clinical outcomes with a second-line vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted agent in patients with advanced RCC. © 2014 Cancer Research UK.
Davis I.D.,Monash University |
Davis I.D.,ANZUP Cancer Trials Group |
Long A.,ANZUP Cancer Trials Group |
Long A.,University of Sydney |
And 32 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015
Background: We hypothesised that alternating inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways would delay the development of resistance in advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC). Patients and methods: A single-arm, two-stage, multicentre, phase 2 trial to determine the activity, feasibility, and safety of 12-week cycles of sunitinib 50 mg daily 4 weeks on / 2 weeks off, alternating with everolimus 10 mg daily for 5 weeks on / 1 week off, until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity in favourable or intermediate-risk aRCC. The primary end point was proportion alive and progression-free at 6 months (PFS6m). The secondary end points were feasibility, tumour response, overall survival (OS), and adverse events (AEs). The correlative objective was to assess biomarkers and correlate with clinical outcome. Results: We recruited 55 eligible participants from September 2010 to August 2012. Demographics: mean age 61, 71% male, favourable risk 16%, intermediate risk 84%. Cycle 2 commenced within 14 weeks for 80% of participants; 64% received ≥22 weeks of alternating therapy; 78% received ≥22 weeks of any treatment. PFS6m was 29/55 (53%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 40% to 66%). Tumour response rate was 7/55 (13%; 95% CI 4% to 22%, all partial responses). After median follow-up of 20 months, 47 of 55 (86%) had progressed with a median progression-free survival of 8 months (95% CI 5-10), and 30 of 55 (55%) had died with a median OS of 17 months (95% CI 12-undefined). AEs were consistent with those expected for each single agent. No convincing prognostic biomarkers were identified. Conclusions: The EVERSUN regimen was feasible and safe, but its activity did not meet pre-specified values to warrant further research. This supports the current approach of continuing anti-VEGF therapy until progression or prohibitive toxicity before changing treatment. © 2014 The Author.
Chan A.C.,University of Melbourne |
Neeson P.,University of Melbourne |
Leeansyah E.,University of Melbourne |
Quach H.,University of Melbourne |
And 7 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2014
The causes of multiple myeloma (MM) remain obscure and there are few known risk factors; however, natural killer T (NKT) cell abnormalities have been reported in patients with MM, and therapeutic targeting of NKT cells is promoted as a potential treatment. We characterized NKT cell defects in treated and untreated patients with MM and determined the impact of lenalidomide therapy on the NKT cell pool. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug with co-stimulatory effects on NKT cells in vitro and is an approved treatment for MM, although its mode of action in that context is not well defined. We find that patients with relapsed/progressive MM had a marked deficiency in NKT cell numbers. In contrast, newly diagnosed patients had relatively normal NKT cell frequency and function prior to treatment, although a specific NKT cell deficiency emerged after high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) regimen. This also impacted NK cells and conventional T cells, but the recovery of NKT cells was considerably delayed, resulting in a prolonged, treatment-induced NKT cell deficit. Longitudinal analysis of individual patients revealed that lenalidomide therapy had no in-vivo impact on NKT cell numbers or cytokine production, either as induction therapy, or as maintenance therapy following ASCT, indicating that its clinical benefits in this setting are independent of NKT cell modulation. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.
Berzins S.P.,University of Vic |
Berzins S.P.,Fiona Elsey Cancer Research Institute |
Berzins S.P.,University of Melbourne |
Ritchie D.S.,Royal Melbourne Hospital |
Ritchie D.S.,University of Melbourne
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2014
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are credited with regulatory roles in immunity against cancers, autoimmune diseases, allergies, and bacterial and viral infections. Studies in mice and observational research in patient groups have suggested that NKT cell-based therapies could be used to prevent or treat these diseases, yet the translation into clinical settings has been disappointing. We support the view that NKT cells have regulatory characteristics that could be exploited in clinical settings, but there are doubts about the natural roles of NKT cells in vivo and whether NKT cell defects are fundamental drivers of disease in humans. In this Opinion article, we discuss the uncertainties and opportunities regarding NKT cells in humans, and the potential for NKT cells to be manipulated to prevent or treat disease. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.