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Viken A.,Finnmark University College
Polar Record | Year: 2011

The tourism industry, research activities, and governing institutions are often seen as three very different, independent, and partly antagonistic activities and sectors - tourism as pure profit-pursuing, research as indifferent to business, and governing as controlling both. In this paper, it is argued that this is not the case on Svalbard, where a symbiotic relationship exists between the three sectors. Tourism to the islands emerged in the wake of the exploration of the Arctic in the late 1800s, but for a long period tourism rates were low, mostly due to a strict environmental regime supported by researchers in the natural sciences as well as the government. However, tourism has increased over the past 20 years, partly due to changes in the relationships between the tourism industry, researchers, and governing bodies. The involvement of research in different types of governance and its influence on tourism development will be demonstrated using theories of modern governance as points of departure for an analysis of the current situation; how tourism has provided governors with activities to govern and researchers with a rationale for comprehensive research activity. This case study shows how a symbiosis between tourism, research, and governance can be seen to emerge. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

Andersen S.T.,Finnmark University College | Jansen A.,University of Oslo
International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics | Year: 2011

This paper describes a project redesigning psychiatric services for children and adolescents, introducing a new decentralized model into the ordinary structures of health care services in rural areas in Norway by using mobile phone technology. The authors apply a multilayer and dialectic perspective in the analysis of the innovation process that created the ICT solution that supports this treatment model. The salient challenges of the project were related to the contradictions between the existing, dominant power structures and the emergent structures in the different layers of the design structures. As a result of the development process, a new model emerged with a larger potential for creating a new innovation path than if it had been linked to existing structures. This paper contributes to the understanding of how user-driven innovation can break with existing power structures through focusing on different layers in the change processes. Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Source

Lyly M.,University of Turku | Klemola T.,University of Turku | Koivisto E.,University of Turku | Huitu O.,Finnish Forest Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Oecologia | Year: 2014

The negative impacts of mammalian herbivores on plants have been studied quite extensively, but typically with only a single herbivore species at a time. We conducted a novel comparison of the browsing effects of voles, hares and cervids upon the growth and survival of boreal tree seedlings. This was done by excluding varying assemblages of these key mammalian herbivores from silver birch, Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings for 3 years. We hypothesised that the pooled impacts of the herbivores would be greater than that of any individual group, while the cervids would be the group with the strongest impact. Growth of birch seedlings advanced when cervids were excluded whereas growth of seedlings accessible to cervids was hindered. Survival of all seedlings was lowest when they were accessible to voles and voles plus hares, whereas cervids seemed not to influence seedling survival. Our results show that the impact of herbivores upon woody plants can be potent in the boreal forests, but the mechanism and strength of this link depends on the tree and herbivore species in question. Risk of abated stand regeneration appears highest for the deciduous birch, though there is need for seedling protection also in coniferous stands. The clear cervid-mediated growth limitation of birch also indicates potential for a trophic cascade effect by mammalian top predators, currently returning to boreal ecosystems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Estes J.A.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Terborgh J.,Duke University | Brashares J.S.,University of California at Berkeley | Power M.E.,University of California at Berkeley | And 23 more authors.
Science | Year: 2011

Until recently, large apex consumers were ubiquitous across the globe and had been for millions of years. The loss of these animals may be humankind's most pervasive influence on nature. Although such losses are widely viewed as an ethical and aesthetic problem, recent research reveals extensive cascading effects of their disappearance in marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. This empirical work supports long-standing theory about the role of top-down forcing in ecosystems but also highlights the unanticipated impacts of trophic cascades on processes as diverse as the dynamics of disease, wildfire, carbon sequestration, invasive species, and biogeochemical cycles. These findings emphasize the urgent need for interdisciplinary research to forecast the effects of trophic downgrading on process, function, and resilience in global ecosystems. Source

Esjeholm B.-T.,Finnmark University College | Bungum B.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Technology and Design Education | Year: 2013

The teacher plays an important role in the Technology and Design (T&D) classroom in terms of guiding students in their design process. By using concepts developed within engineering philosophy along with a framework for teacher-student interactions the design process in a T&D classroom is classified. The material shows that four of six predefined categories of design knowledge and three of seven predefined classes of activity are present in the material. Findings suggest that two categories of design knowledge, fundamental design concepts and practical considerations, are particularly significant in the students' work. The teacher's influence with respect to particularly the first of these categories is crucial for the students' design process. Direct trial is found as the students' dominating activity for solving the technological challenges. The results indicate that it is beneficial for students to be introduced to an operational principle before they can be innovative and develop their own design configuration when they establish their fundamental design concept. Curriculum developers, designers of teaching materials as well as teachers should take into account the students' need of sufficient time to explore their design configuration. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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