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Haapio M.,University of Helsinki | Helve J.,University of Helsinki | Groop P.-H.,University of Helsinki | Gronhagen-Riska C.,University of Helsinki | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE - Risks of end-stage renal disease and premature death in patients with type 1 diabetes have declined over the past decades. Data on the survival of patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) are, however, limited. We investigated whether survival of patients with type 1 diabetes receiving RRT has improved over time and whether improvement can be attributable to progress in dialysis treatment or diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - An incident cohort of all patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 1,604) starting chronic RRT in Finland between 1980 and 2005 were followed until death or end of follow-up on 31 December 2007. The control group (n = 1,556) consisted of patients with glomerulonephritis who started RRT. All patients were identified from the Finnish Registry for Kidney Diseases. RESULTS - Median survival time of patients with type 1 diabetes increased progressively from 3.60 years during 1980-1984 to >8 years in 2000-2005. In 2000-2005, the unadjusted relative risk of death was 0.55 compared with 1980-1984. After adjustment for the most important variables, the corresponding relative risk of death was only 0.23. For patients with glomerulonephritis, the adjusted relative risk decreased to a lesser extent to 0.30 (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS - Survival of patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease has improved since the 1980s despite a conspicuous increase in the age of patients who start RRT, suggesting not only true progress in dialysis therapy and overall treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease but possibly also improved management of diabetes. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association.


Koopman J.J.E.,Leiden University | Koopman J.J.E.,Vitality | Rozing M.P.,Leiden University | Kramer A.,University of Amsterdam | And 13 more authors.
Aging Cell | Year: 2011

The most frequently used model to describe the exponential increase in mortality rate over age is the Gompertz equation. Logarithmically transformed, the equation conforms to a straight line, of which the slope has been interpreted as the rate of senescence. Earlier, we proposed the derivative function of the Gompertz equation as a superior descriptor of senescence rate. Here, we tested both measures of the rate of senescence in a population of patients with end-stage renal disease. It is clinical dogma that patients on dialysis experience accelerated senescence, whereas those with a functional kidney transplant have mortality rates comparable to the general population. Therefore, we calculated the age-specific mortality rates for European patients on dialysis (n=274221; follow-up=594767 person-years), for European patients with a functioning kidney transplant (n=61286; follow-up=345024 person-years), and for the general European population. We found higher mortality rates, but a smaller slope of logarithmic mortality curve for patients on dialysis compared with both patients with a functioning kidney transplant and the general population (P<0.001). A classical interpretation of the Gompertz model would imply that the rate of senescence in patients on dialysis is lower than in patients with a functioning transplant and lower than in the general population. In contrast, the derivative function of the Gompertz equation yielded the highest senescence rates for patients on dialysis, whereas the rate was similar in patients with a functioning transplant and the general population. We conclude that the rate of senescence is better described by the derivative function of the Gompertz equation. © 2010 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Carrero J.J.,Karolinska Institutet | de Jager D.J.,Leiden University | Verduijn M.,Leiden University | Ravani P.,University of Calgary | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2011

Background and objectives Although women have a survival advantage in the general population, women on dialysis have similar mortality to men. We hypothesized that this paired mortality risk during dialysis may be explained by a relative excess of cardiovascular-related mortality in women. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We compared 5-year age-stratified cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality rates, relative risks, and hazard ratios in a European cohort of incident adult dialysis patients (European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association [ERA-EDTA] Registry) with the European general population (Eurostat). Cause of death was recorded by ERA-EDTA codes in dialysis patients and by International Statistical Classification of Diseases codes in the general population. Results Overall, sex did not have a predictive effect on outcome in dialysis. Stratification into age categories and causes of death showed greater noncardiovascular mortality in young women (<45 years). In other age categories (45 to 55 and >55 years), women presented lower cardiovascular mortality. This cardiovascular benefit was, however, smaller than in the general population. Stratification by diabetic nephropathy showed that diabetic women in all age categories remained at increased mortality risk compared with men, an effect mainly attributed to the noncardiovascular component. Conclusions Mortality rates and causes of death in men and women on dialysis vary with age. Increased noncardiovascular mortality may explain the loss of the survival advantage of women on dialysis. Both young and diabetic women starting dialysis are at a higher mortality risk than equal men. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology.


Stel V.S.,University of Amsterdam | Tomson C.,UK Renal Registry | Ansell D.,UK Renal Registry | Casino F.G.,Ospedale Madonna delle Grazie | And 9 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2010

Background. The aims of this European study were (i) to compare the level of renal function at the start of dialysis between age groups, gender, primary renal disease, comorbid conditions, treatment modality, time periods and countries, and (ii) to determine which baseline characteristics are associated with the level of renal function at the start of dialysis.Methods. Renal registries participating in the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry provided data on serum creatinine 0-4 weeks before the start of dialysis in incident dialysis patients in 1999 and 2003. Data were available in 11 472 patients from nine renal registries. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results. The unadjusted median eGFR at the start of dialysis was 7.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the 1999 data (median serum creatinine 7.5 mg/dL) and 7.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the 2003 data (serum creatinine 7.0 mg/dL). Using linear regression with adjustment for the other covariates, older patients, males, patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension/renal vascular disease (HT/RVD) as primary renal disease (vs glomerulonephritis), ischaemic heart disease or peripheral vascular disease and patients starting on peritoneal dialysis (PD) initiated dialysis at higher levels of eGFR (range Δ eGFR: 0.1-1.2 mL/min/1.73 m2). Using the same analyses, eGFR differed between countries (range: 6.5-8.6 mL/min/1.73 m2). Conclusions. During 2003, patients started dialysis at somewhat higher eGFR levels than those starting during 1999. There were also international differences in eGFR. Such differences may, at least in part, be explained by differences in creatinine measurement methods between countries and time periods. Finally, older patients, males, patients with HT/RVD or comorbidity and those starting on PD had slightly higher eGFR levels than younger patients, females, those with glomerulonephritis, without comorbidity and those starting on haemodialysis. Further research is needed into other, more clinically related factors affecting the decision to start dialysis. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.


Kramer A.,University of Amsterdam | Jager K.J.,University of Amsterdam | Fogarty D.G.,Nephrology Research Group | Ravani P.,University of Calgary | And 7 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2012

BackgroundPrevious studies have found inconsistent associations between pre-transplant dialysis modality and subsequent post-transplant survival. We aimed to examine this relationship using the instrumental variable method and to compare the results with standard Cox regression.MethodsWe included 29 088 patients (age >20 years) from 16 European national or regional renal registries who received a first kidney transplant between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2008 and were on dialysis before transplantation for a period between 90 days and 10 years. Standard multivariable Cox regression examined the association of individually assigned pre-transplant dialysis modality with post-transplant patient and graft survival. To decrease confounding-by- indication through unmeasured factors, we applied the instrumental variable method that used the case-mix adjusted centre percentage of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as predictor variable.ResultsStandard analyses adjusted for age, sex, primary renal disease, donor type, duration of dialysis, year of transplantation and country suggested that PD before transplantation was associated with better patient [hazard ratio, HR (95% CI) = 0.83 (0.76-0.91)] and graft survival (HR (95% CI) 0.90 (0.84-0.96)) when compared with haemodialysis (HD). In contrast, the instrumental variable analysis showed that a 10% increase in the case-mix adjusted centre percentage of patients on PD was neither associated with post-transplant patient survival [HR (95% CI = 1.00 (0.97-1.04)] nor with graft survival [HR (95% CI) = 1.01 (0.98-1.04)].ConclusionsThe instrumental variable method failed to confirm the associations found in standard Cox regression between pre-transplant dialysis modality and patient and graft survival after transplantation. The lack of association in instrumental variable analysis may be due to better control of residual confounding. © 2012 The Author.

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