Finnish Red Cross Blood Service

Helsinki, Finland

Finnish Red Cross Blood Service

Helsinki, Finland
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Priyadarshini M.,University of Helsinki | Tuimala J.,Life Science Center | Tuimala J.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Chen Y.C.,University of Helsinki | Panula P.,University of Helsinki
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2013

The PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (. PINK1) gene is mutated in patients with hereditary early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). The targets of PINK1 and the mechanisms in PD are still not fully understood. Here, we carried out a high-throughput and unbiased microarray study to identify novel functions and pathways for PINK1. In larval zebrafish, the function of pink1 was inhibited using splice-site morpholino oligonucleotides and the samples were hybridized on a two-color gene expression array. We found 177 significantly altered genes in pink1 morphants compared with the uninjected wildtype controls (log fold change values from -. 1.6 to +. 0.9). The five most prominent pathways based on critical biological processes and key toxicological responses were hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling, TGF-β signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, RAR activation, and biogenesis of mitochondria. Furthermore, we verified that potentially important genes such as hif1α, catalase, SOD3, and atp1a2a were downregulated in pink1 morphants, whereas genes such as fech, pax2a, and notch1a were upregulated. Some of these genes have been found to play important roles in HIF signaling pathways. The pink1 morphants were found to have heart dysfunction, increased erythropoiesis, increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factors, and increased ROS. Our findings suggest that a lack of pink1 in zebrafish alters many vital and critical pathways in addition to the HIF signaling pathway. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Mitkari B.,University of Eastern Finland | Kerkela E.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Nystedt J.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Korhonen M.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Neurology | Year: 2013

Cell therapies from various sources have been under intense research in stroke. Efficient homing of the cells to the injured brain without complications is necessary to realize the therapeutic potential of cell therapy. Intra-arterial (IA) infusion of cells bypasses the filtering organs and directs the cells to the target area more efficiently. Here we studied the biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (BMMSCs) after a direct infusion into the external carotid artery (ECA) in rats. Cells, which were cultured without animal-derived agents and also treated with a proteolytic enzyme to transiently modify cell surface adhesion proteins, were infused 24h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). SPECT imaging was used immediately after cell infusion and 24h thereafter to track 111In-oxine-labeled BMMSC in sham-operated and MCAO rats. IA infusion of BMMSCs in rats resulted in immediate cell entrapment in the brain, but the majority of the signal disappeared during the next 24h and relocated to the internal organs. In MCAO rats, radioactivity counts 24h after infusion were higher in the ischemic hemisphere compared to the contralateral hemisphere. Our results showed that IA infusion through ECA is a safe and efficient administration route for BMMSCs resulting in a transient localization of cells in the rat brain. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Mitkari B.,University of Eastern Finland | Nitzsche F.,University of Eastern Finland | Kerkela E.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Kuptsova K.,University of Eastern Finland | And 4 more authors.
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2014

Intravascular cell therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of stroke. However, high accumulation of cells to lungs and other filtering organs is a major concern after intravenous (i.v.) cell transplantation. This can be circumvented by intra-arterial (i.a.) cell infusion, which improves homing of cells to the injured brain. We studied the effect of i.a. delivery of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (BMMSCs) on behavioral and histological outcome in rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sixty male Wistar rats were subjected to transient MCAO (60min) or sham-operation. BMMSCs (1×106) were infused into the external carotid artery on postoperative day 2 or 7. Histology performed after a 42-day follow-up did not detect any human cells (MAB1281) in the ischemic brain. Endothelial cell staining with RECA-1 revealed a significant increase in the number of blood vessels in the perilesional cortex in MCAO rats treated with cells on postoperative day 7. Behavioral recovery as assessed in three tests, sticky label, cylinder and Montoya's staircase, was not improved by human BMMSCs during the follow-up. In conclusion, human BMMSCs did not improve functional recovery in MCAO rats despite effective initial homing to the ischemic hemisphere and enhanced angiogenesis, when strict behavioral tests not affected by repeated testing and compensation were utilized. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wacklin P.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Kaukinen K.,University of Tampere | Tuovinen E.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Collin P.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | And 4 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Celiac disease is classically manifested in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but extraintestinal symptoms, such as dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), are also common. Besides several well-known shared genetic risk factors and an environmental trigger, gliadin, factors determining the clinical outcome of the disease are not known. In this study, the role of duodenal microbiota in the celiac disease outcome was studied by analyzing mucosaassociated microbiota in celiac disease patients with a variety of intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms. Methods: Microbiota in duodenal biopsy samples obtained from 33 patients with celiac disease with GI, DH, anemia, or mixed symptoms, as well as screen-detected asymptomatic celiac disease and 18 control subjects were analyzed using PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and a subset of samples additionally by the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results: The composition and diversity of mucosal microbiota was associated with the manifestation of celiac disease when analyzed using PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The patients with celiac disease with GI symptoms or anemia had lower microbial diversity than those with DH. Moreover, the patients with GI symptoms had different intestinal microbiota composition and structure, dominated by Proteobacteria, in comparison to those with DH or control subjects (patients with dyspepsia). The relatively similar intestinal microbiota composition in the control subjects and those with DH was characterized by the high abundance of Firmicutes. Conclusions: The two common outcomes of celiac disease, classical GI and extraintestinal manifestations, had marked differences on the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota. This association suggested that intestinal microbiota may have a role in the manifestation of. Copyright © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.


Palomaki S.,University of Oulu | Pietila M.,University of Oulu | Laitinen S.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Pesala J.,University of Oulu | And 3 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2013

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that have aroused great expectations in regenerative medicine. They are assumed to originate from hypoxic stem cell niches, especially in the bone marrow. This suggests that O2 is of importance in their regulation. In order to characterize regulation of the oxygen sensing pathway in these cells, we studied hMSCs isolated from three origins, adult and pediatric bone marrow and umbilical cord blood (UCB). Surprisingly, pediatric bone marrow and UCB MSCs showed normoxic stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) that is normally degraded completely by HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases in the presence of oxygen. This was due to a high expression level of HIF-1α mRNA rather than inappropriate post-translational degradation of HIF-1α protein. HIF-1α mRNA was also induced in normoxic adult bone marrow MSCs, but 40% less than in the pediatric cells, and this was apparently not enough to stabilize the protein. The high normoxic HIF expression in all the hMSCs studied was accompanied by increased expression of a large number of glycolytic HIF target genes and increased glycolysis. Osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived hMSCs reduced HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression and the expression of glycolytic mRNAs, resulting in decreased glycolysis and induction of oxidative metabolism. Induced mitochondrial biogenesis, changes in mitochondrial morphology and size indicative of increased oxidative phosphorylation, and induction of extracellular matrix synthesis were observed following osteogenic differentiation. Altogether, these data suggest that HIF-1α is a general regulator controlling the metabolic fate and multipotency of the hMSCs. Stem Cells 2013;31:1902-1909 © AlphaMed Press.


Croke M.,Washington University in St. Louis | Ross F.P.,Washington University in St. Louis | Korhonen M.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Williams D.A.,Childrens Hospital Boston | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2011

Summary Cdc42 mediates bone resorption principally by stimulating osteoclastogenesis. Whether its sister GTPase, Rac, meaningfully impacts upon the osteoclast and, if so, by what means, is unclear. We find that whereas deletion of Rac1 or Rac2 alone has no effect, variable reduction of Rac1 in osteoclastic cells of Rac2 2/2 mice causes severe osteopetrosis. Osteoclasts lacking Rac1 and Rac2 in combination (Rac double-knockout, RacDKO), fail to effectively resorb bone. By contrast, osteoclasts are abundant in RacDKO osteopetrotic mice and, unlike those deficient in Cdc42, express the maturation markers of the cells normally. Hence, the osteopetrotic lesion of RacDKO mice largely reflects impaired function, and not arrested differentiation, of the resorptive polykaryon. The dysfunction of RacDKO osteoclasts represents failed cytoskeleton organization as evidenced by reduced motility of the cells and their inability to spread or generate the key resorptive organelles (i.e. actin rings and ruffled borders), which is accompanied by abnormal Arp3 distribution. The cytoskeleton-organizing capacity of Rac1 is mediated through its 20-amino-acid effector domain. Thus, Rac1 and Rac2 are mutually compensatory. Unlike Cdc42 deficiency, their combined absence does not impact upon differentiation but promotes severe osteopetrosis by dysregulating the osteoclast cytoskeleton. © 2011. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


Wacklin P.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Objectives:A significant fraction of celiac disease patients suffer from persistent symptoms despite a long-term gluten-free diet (GFD) and normalized small bowel mucosa. The commonly suggested reasons, such as inadvertent gluten-intake or presence of other gastrointestinal disease, do not explain the symptoms in all these patients. Recently, alterations in intestinal microbiota have been associated with autoimmune disorders, including celiac disease. This led us to test a hypothesis that abnormal intestinal microbiota may be associated with persisting gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients.Methods:Duodenal microbiota was analyzed in 18 GFD-treated patients suffering from persistent symptoms and 18 treated patients without symptoms by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The celiac disease patients had been following a strict GFD for several years and had restored small bowel mucosa and negative celiac autoantibodies. Their symptoms on GFD were assessed with Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale.Results:The results of several clustering methods showed that the treated celiac disease patients with persistent symptoms were colonized by different duodenal microbiota in comparison with patients without symptoms. The treated patients with persistent symptoms had a higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P=0.04) and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (P=0.01) and Firmicutes (P=0.05). Moreover, their microbial richness was reduced. The results indicated intestinal dysbiosis in patients with persistent symptoms even while adhering to a strict GFD.Conclusions:Our findings indicate that dysbiosis of microbiota is associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients and open new possibilities to treat this subgroup of patients.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.355. © 2014 American College of Gastroenterology


Rautonen J.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service
Biologicals | Year: 2010

The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk. © 2009 The International Association for Biologicals.


Laitinen A.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

There is growing evidence that low oxygen conditions are beneficial for in vitro stem cell culturing. Mimicking the physiological oxygen tension of the placental stem cell niche in cell expansion can -ultimately result in more robust cell expansion. Growing evidence also suggests that hypoxic preconditioning of cells may improve therapeutic outcomes. Here we describe a scalable method that enables mesenchymal stromal cell expansion from virtually every cord blood unit, including those that would normally be disqualified from banking. In addition, the cells obtained by the described method fulfill exclusively the mesenchymal stromal cell characteristics defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy.


Ali A.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Auvinen M.-K.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service | Rautonen J.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service
Transfusion | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The Finnish transfusion registry data suggest some alarming signals and future challenges that are likely to be faced by transfusion services as populations continue to age. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Computerized data collection was performed on all potentially transfused patients in Finland, thus covering ∼70% of all blood usage. We simulated the red blood cell (RBC) usage according to the Finnish practice on different age groups but the population demographics from other countries. RESULTS: The Finnish data demonstrate a marked increase in RBC consumption with increasing age among recipients, beginning at around 50 years of age. The 70- to 80-year-olds have an eightfold higher RBC consumption than 20- to 40-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: A large part of the variation in RBC use per capita can be explained by the age distribution of the different populations and not by the different national and regional treatment policies and protocols used. If current efforts are not enough to serve the changing population demographic and if increasing demands for blood products cannot be met, there is need to consider unprecedented measures such as reversing certain donor deferrals or even exporting blood from country to country. © 2009 American Association of Blood Banks.

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