Partty A.,University of Turku |
Kalliomaki M.,University of Turku |
Wacklin P.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Salminen S.,University of Turku |
Isolauri E.,University of Turku
Pediatric Research | Year: 2015
Background:Recent experimental evidence suggests that gut microbiota may alter function within the nervous system providing new insight on the mechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders.Methods:Seventy-five infants who were randomized to receive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) or placebo during the first 6 mo of life were followed-up for 13 y. Gut microbiota was assessed at the age of 3 wk, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 mo, and 13 y using fluorescein in situ hybridization (FISH) and qPCR, and indirectly by determining the blood group secretor type at the age of 13 y. The diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) by a child neurologist or psychiatrist were based on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria.Results:At the age of 13 y, ADHD or AS was diagnosed in 6/35 (17.1%) children in the placebo and none in the probiotic group (P = 0.008). The mean (SD) numbers of Bifidobacterium species bacteria in feces during the first 6 mo of life was lower in affected children 8.26 (1.24) log cells/g than in healthy children 9.12 (0.64) log cells/g; P = 0.03.Conclusion:Probiotic supplementation early in life may reduce the risk of neuropsychiatric disorder development later in childhood possible by mechanisms not limited to gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2015 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc.
Puurunen M.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Salo P.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare |
Engelbarth S.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Javela K.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Perola M.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2013
Background: It has been shown that some antithrombin (AT) activity assays do not correctly detect inherited type II AT deficiency, but erroneously classify these patients as normal. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the mutations causing type II AT deficiency and to correlate the AT activity results with the genetic findings. Patients/Methods: A large population (n = 104; 42 families) of Finnish patients with known AT type II deficiency were interviewed for clinical data. Their AT activity was measured with five commercially available methods, and the SERPINC1 gene was genotyped. Results: The mutations detected in type II AT-deficient patients were as follows: p.Pro73Leu (AT Basel) in 37 of 42 (88.1%) families; and p.Val30Glu, p.Arg425Cys and p.Pro439Ala in one family each. In two families, no mutation was detected. In the carriers of AT Basel two AT activity assays correctly identified most of the patients as AT-deficient, whereas three assays misclassified almost all of these patients as normal. Carriers of the founder mutation had, in addition to an elevated risk of venous thrombosis, a high risk of arterial thrombosis at young age, especially stroke. Conclusion: In Finland, a population with a strong founder effect, AT type II deficiency is caused predominantly by a single point mutation, p.Pro73Leu. The mutation is associated with a significant thrombotic risk. Reduced AT activity caused by this mutation cannot be detected by all available screening methods. This must be taken into account in the choice of laboratory method used for screening. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Wasmund N.,Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research |
Tuimala J.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Suikkanen S.,Finnish Environment Institute |
Vandepitte L.,Flanders Marine Institute VLIZ |
Kraberg A.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2011
The phytoplankton biomass data of the period 1979-2005 of the Belt Sea area and the Baltic Proper, separated into spring, summer and autumn data, were checked for trends, together with the relevant abiotic factors (temperature, salinity, and nutrient concentrations). The Mann-Kendall test was used for detecting monotonic trends over the whole investigation period or, if trend breaks occurred, over the period before and after the trend breaks. The relationships between phytoplankton community composition and the environmental variables were assessed by a redundancy analysis (RDA), which could support some results of the trend analyses. Water temperature increased but salinity and inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased in the southern Baltic Proper. Spring phytoplankton biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations increased in the Baltic Proper and decreased in Mecklenburg Bight. The biomass of Diatomophyceae decreased in spring at some stations but increased in autumn. If the Diatomophyceae spring blooms decreased, the total Dinophyceae biomass increased. Strong spring blooms of Diatomophyceae occurred in the 1980s and since 2000, but those of Dinophyceae in the 1990s. These two groups showed alternating oscillations. Trends in most phytoplankton components were different in the Baltic Proper and the Belt Sea area, confirming that Darss Sill is a biological border. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Wacklin P.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Kaukinen K.,University of Tampere |
Tuovinen E.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Collin P.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
And 4 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2013
Background: Celiac disease is classically manifested in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but extraintestinal symptoms, such as dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), are also common. Besides several well-known shared genetic risk factors and an environmental trigger, gliadin, factors determining the clinical outcome of the disease are not known. In this study, the role of duodenal microbiota in the celiac disease outcome was studied by analyzing mucosaassociated microbiota in celiac disease patients with a variety of intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms. Methods: Microbiota in duodenal biopsy samples obtained from 33 patients with celiac disease with GI, DH, anemia, or mixed symptoms, as well as screen-detected asymptomatic celiac disease and 18 control subjects were analyzed using PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and a subset of samples additionally by the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results: The composition and diversity of mucosal microbiota was associated with the manifestation of celiac disease when analyzed using PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The patients with celiac disease with GI symptoms or anemia had lower microbial diversity than those with DH. Moreover, the patients with GI symptoms had different intestinal microbiota composition and structure, dominated by Proteobacteria, in comparison to those with DH or control subjects (patients with dyspepsia). The relatively similar intestinal microbiota composition in the control subjects and those with DH was characterized by the high abundance of Firmicutes. Conclusions: The two common outcomes of celiac disease, classical GI and extraintestinal manifestations, had marked differences on the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota. This association suggested that intestinal microbiota may have a role in the manifestation of. Copyright © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.
Palomaki S.,University of Oulu |
Pietila M.,University of Oulu |
Laitinen S.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Pesala J.,University of Oulu |
And 3 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2013
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that have aroused great expectations in regenerative medicine. They are assumed to originate from hypoxic stem cell niches, especially in the bone marrow. This suggests that O2 is of importance in their regulation. In order to characterize regulation of the oxygen sensing pathway in these cells, we studied hMSCs isolated from three origins, adult and pediatric bone marrow and umbilical cord blood (UCB). Surprisingly, pediatric bone marrow and UCB MSCs showed normoxic stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) that is normally degraded completely by HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases in the presence of oxygen. This was due to a high expression level of HIF-1α mRNA rather than inappropriate post-translational degradation of HIF-1α protein. HIF-1α mRNA was also induced in normoxic adult bone marrow MSCs, but 40% less than in the pediatric cells, and this was apparently not enough to stabilize the protein. The high normoxic HIF expression in all the hMSCs studied was accompanied by increased expression of a large number of glycolytic HIF target genes and increased glycolysis. Osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived hMSCs reduced HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression and the expression of glycolytic mRNAs, resulting in decreased glycolysis and induction of oxidative metabolism. Induced mitochondrial biogenesis, changes in mitochondrial morphology and size indicative of increased oxidative phosphorylation, and induction of extracellular matrix synthesis were observed following osteogenic differentiation. Altogether, these data suggest that HIF-1α is a general regulator controlling the metabolic fate and multipotency of the hMSCs. Stem Cells 2013;31:1902-1909 © AlphaMed Press.
Croke M.,Washington University in St. Louis |
Ross F.P.,Washington University in St. Louis |
Korhonen M.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Williams D.A.,Childrens Hospital Boston |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2011
Summary Cdc42 mediates bone resorption principally by stimulating osteoclastogenesis. Whether its sister GTPase, Rac, meaningfully impacts upon the osteoclast and, if so, by what means, is unclear. We find that whereas deletion of Rac1 or Rac2 alone has no effect, variable reduction of Rac1 in osteoclastic cells of Rac2 2/2 mice causes severe osteopetrosis. Osteoclasts lacking Rac1 and Rac2 in combination (Rac double-knockout, RacDKO), fail to effectively resorb bone. By contrast, osteoclasts are abundant in RacDKO osteopetrotic mice and, unlike those deficient in Cdc42, express the maturation markers of the cells normally. Hence, the osteopetrotic lesion of RacDKO mice largely reflects impaired function, and not arrested differentiation, of the resorptive polykaryon. The dysfunction of RacDKO osteoclasts represents failed cytoskeleton organization as evidenced by reduced motility of the cells and their inability to spread or generate the key resorptive organelles (i.e. actin rings and ruffled borders), which is accompanied by abnormal Arp3 distribution. The cytoskeleton-organizing capacity of Rac1 is mediated through its 20-amino-acid effector domain. Thus, Rac1 and Rac2 are mutually compensatory. Unlike Cdc42 deficiency, their combined absence does not impact upon differentiation but promotes severe osteopetrosis by dysregulating the osteoclast cytoskeleton. © 2011. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Wacklin P.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014
Objectives:A significant fraction of celiac disease patients suffer from persistent symptoms despite a long-term gluten-free diet (GFD) and normalized small bowel mucosa. The commonly suggested reasons, such as inadvertent gluten-intake or presence of other gastrointestinal disease, do not explain the symptoms in all these patients. Recently, alterations in intestinal microbiota have been associated with autoimmune disorders, including celiac disease. This led us to test a hypothesis that abnormal intestinal microbiota may be associated with persisting gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients.Methods:Duodenal microbiota was analyzed in 18 GFD-treated patients suffering from persistent symptoms and 18 treated patients without symptoms by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The celiac disease patients had been following a strict GFD for several years and had restored small bowel mucosa and negative celiac autoantibodies. Their symptoms on GFD were assessed with Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale.Results:The results of several clustering methods showed that the treated celiac disease patients with persistent symptoms were colonized by different duodenal microbiota in comparison with patients without symptoms. The treated patients with persistent symptoms had a higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P=0.04) and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (P=0.01) and Firmicutes (P=0.05). Moreover, their microbial richness was reduced. The results indicated intestinal dysbiosis in patients with persistent symptoms even while adhering to a strict GFD.Conclusions:Our findings indicate that dysbiosis of microbiota is associated with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients and open new possibilities to treat this subgroup of patients.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.355. © 2014 American College of Gastroenterology
Rautonen J.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service
Biologicals | Year: 2010
The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk. © 2009 The International Association for Biologicals.
Laitinen A.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011
There is growing evidence that low oxygen conditions are beneficial for in vitro stem cell culturing. Mimicking the physiological oxygen tension of the placental stem cell niche in cell expansion can -ultimately result in more robust cell expansion. Growing evidence also suggests that hypoxic preconditioning of cells may improve therapeutic outcomes. Here we describe a scalable method that enables mesenchymal stromal cell expansion from virtually every cord blood unit, including those that would normally be disqualified from banking. In addition, the cells obtained by the described method fulfill exclusively the mesenchymal stromal cell characteristics defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy.
Ali A.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Auvinen M.-K.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service |
Rautonen J.,Finnish Red Cross Blood Service
Transfusion | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND: The Finnish transfusion registry data suggest some alarming signals and future challenges that are likely to be faced by transfusion services as populations continue to age. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Computerized data collection was performed on all potentially transfused patients in Finland, thus covering ∼70% of all blood usage. We simulated the red blood cell (RBC) usage according to the Finnish practice on different age groups but the population demographics from other countries. RESULTS: The Finnish data demonstrate a marked increase in RBC consumption with increasing age among recipients, beginning at around 50 years of age. The 70- to 80-year-olds have an eightfold higher RBC consumption than 20- to 40-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: A large part of the variation in RBC use per capita can be explained by the age distribution of the different populations and not by the different national and regional treatment policies and protocols used. If current efforts are not enough to serve the changing population demographic and if increasing demands for blood products cannot be met, there is need to consider unprecedented measures such as reversing certain donor deferrals or even exporting blood from country to country. © 2009 American Association of Blood Banks.