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Sund R.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Aims: The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) is one of the oldest individual level hospital discharge registers and has been intensively used for research purposes. The aim of this study was to gather information concerning the quality of FHDR into one place in terms of a systematic review of validation studies that compare data to external information. Methods: Several reference databases were searched for validity articles published until January 2012. For each included study, focus of validation, register years examined, number of compared observations, external source(s) of data, summary of validation results, and conclusions concerning the validity of FHDR were extracted. Results: In total, 32 different studies comparing FHDR data to external information were identified. Most of the studies examined validity in the case of vascular disease, mental disorders or injuries. More than 95% of discharges could be identified from the register. Positive predictive value (PPV) for common diagnoses was between 75 and 99%. Conclusions: Completeness and accuracy in the register seem to vary from satisfactory to very good in the register as long as the recognised limitations are taking into account. Poor recording of subsidiary diagnoses and secondary operations and other rarely used items are the most obvious limitations in validity, but do not compromise the value of data in FHDR in being used in studies that are not feasible to conduct otherwise. © 2012 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

Puska P.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2010

The Framingham study was a landmark study that, already in the 1960s, gave strong evidence as to the likely causal role of several lifestyle-linked factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Men in Finland had at that time the highest mortality rates of coronary heart disease in the world, a finding that raised much local concern. In 1972, a pioneering project by a young leadership team and with many partners, including World Health Organization, was started to change the situation. The project was based on the results for Framingham and some other classical studies to carry out a comprehensive prevention program to reduce the risk factor levels in the population through general lifestyle changes in the pilot area of North Karelia. Later on, the work was transferred to national level. Over the years, great reductions in the population levels of the risk factors took place, associated with dramatic reduction in age-adjusted CVD mortality rates and improvement in public health. The experience of diminishing the prevalence of risk factors in the population is a powerful demonstration of how the CVD epidemic can be successfully confronted-thatis, how the Framingham results can effectively be used for major progress in public health. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Uutela A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
Current Opinion in Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Purpose of review: Literature from the past year was examined to learn whether economic recessions have an effect on mental disorders including depression and suicides. Recent findings: Economic recessions and crises have a context-dependent negative impact on mental health disorders. These appear in low-income and middle-income countries whereas some affluent countries are offering provisions that help unemployed persons to escape the detrimental consequences. Summary: The Asian economic crisis led to a sharp unemployment-related increase in suicide mortality in east Asian countries. In European Union countries rising unemployment was associated with significant short-term increases in premature deaths from intentional violence including suicides. It seems that active labour market programmes existing in some Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries can prevent some adverse health effects of economic downturns. As mental health consequences of economic crises are context dependent, the current situation needs monitoring. Enough services for those in need should be provided and advocacy for societal support measures is of great importance. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ahovuo-Saloranta A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Dental sealants were introduced in the 1960s to help prevent dental caries in the pits and fissures of mainly the occlusal tooth surfaces. Sealants act to prevent the growth of bacteria that can lead to dental decay. There is evidence to suggest that fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries in children and adolescents when compared to no sealants. Their effectiveness may be related to the caries prevalence in the population. To compare the effects of different types of fissure sealants in preventing caries in permanent teeth in children and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 1 November 2012); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 1 November 2012); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 1 November 2012); SCISEARCH, CAplus, INSPEC, NTIS and PASCAL via STN Easy (to 1 September 2012); and DARE, NHS EED and HTA (via the CAIRS web interface to 29 March 2012 and thereafter via Metaxis interface to September 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We also searched for ongoing trials via ClinicalTrials.gov (to 23 July 2012). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of at least 12 months duration comparing sealants for preventing caries of occlusal or caries or no caries on occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth. For permanent molars in children and adolescents reduces caries up to 48 months when compared to no sealant, after longer follow-up the quantity and quality of the evidence is reduced. The review revealed that sealants are effective in high risk children but information on the magnitude of the benefit of sealing in other conditions is scarce. The relative effectiveness of different types of sealants has yet to be established.

Pitkanen T.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2013

Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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