Finnish Meat Research Institute

Hämeenlinna, Finland

Finnish Meat Research Institute

Hämeenlinna, Finland
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Keto-Timonen R.,University of Helsinki | Lindstrom M.,University of Helsinki | Puolanne E.,University of Helsinki | Niemisto M.,Finnish Meat Research Institute | Korkeala H.,University of Helsinki
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

The effect of three different concentrations of sodium nitrite (0, 75, and 120 mg/kg) on growth and toxigenesis of group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B was studied in Finnish wiener-type sausage, bologna-type sausage, and cooked ham. A low level of inoculum (2.0 log CFU/g) was used for wiener-type sausage and bologna-type sausage, and both low (2.0 log CFU/g) and high (4.0 log CFU/g) levels were used for cooked ham. The products were formulated and processed under simulated commercial conditions and stored at 8°C for 5 weeks. C. botulinum counts were determined in five replicate samples of each nitrite concentration at 1, 3, and 5 weeks after thermal processing. All samples were positive for C. botulinum type B. The highest C. botulinum counts were detected in nitrite-free products. Toxigenesis was observed in nitrite-free products during storage, but products containing either 75 or 120 mg/kg nitrite remained nontoxic during the 5-week study period, suggesting that spores surviving the heat treatment were unable to germinate and develop into a toxic culture in the presence of nitrite. The results suggest that the safety of processed meat products with respect to group II C. botulinum type B can be maintained even with a reduced concentration (75 mg/kg) of sodium nitrite. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.


Kivisto R.I.,University of Helsinki | Kovanen S.,University of Helsinki | Skarp-De Haan A.,University of Helsinki | Skarp-De Haan A.,Uppsala University | And 5 more authors.
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Campylobacter is themost common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis in the European Union with over 200,000 laboratory-confirmed cases reported annually. This is the first study to describe findings related to comparative genomics analyses of the sequence type (ST)-677 clonal complex (CC), a Campylobacter jejuni lineage associated with bacteremia cases in humans. We performed whole-genome sequencing, using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology, on five related ST-677 CC isolates from two chicken farms to identify microevolution taking place at the farms. Our further aim was to identify novel putative virulence determinants from the ST-677 CC genomes. For this purpose, clinical isolates of the same CC were included in comparative genomic analyses against well-known reference strains of C. Jejuni. Overall, the ST-677 CC was recognized as a highly clonal lineage with relatively small differences between the genomes. Among the farm isolates differences were identified mainly in the lengths of the homopolymeric tracts in genes related to the capsule, lipo-oligosaccharide, and flagella. We identified genomic features shared with C. Jejuni subsp. Doylei, which has also been shown to be associated with bacteremia in humans. These included the degradation of the cytolethal distending toxin operon and similarities between the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis loci. The phase-variable GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.47) (wcbK, CAMP1649), associated with the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, may play a central role in ST-677 CC conferring acid and serum resistance during different stages of infection. Homology-based searches revealed several additional novel features and characteristics, including two putative type Vb secretion systems and a novel restriction modification/methyltransferase gene cluster, putatively associated with pathogenesis and niche adaptation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


PubMed | Uppsala University, Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, University of Helsinki and Finnish Meat Research Institute
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Genome biology and evolution | Year: 2014

Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis in the European Union with over 200,000 laboratory-confirmed cases reported annually. This is the first study to describe findings related to comparative genomics analyses of the sequence type (ST)-677 clonal complex (CC), a Campylobacter jejuni lineage associated with bacteremia cases in humans. We performed whole-genome sequencing, using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology, on five related ST-677 CC isolates from two chicken farms to identify microevolution taking place at the farms. Our further aim was to identify novel putative virulence determinants from the ST-677 CC genomes. For this purpose, clinical isolates of the same CC were included in comparative genomic analyses against well-known reference strains of C. jejuni. Overall, the ST-677 CC was recognized as a highly clonal lineage with relatively small differences between the genomes. Among the farm isolates differences were identified mainly in the lengths of the homopolymeric tracts in genes related to the capsule, lipo-oligosaccharide, and flagella. We identified genomic features shared with C. jejuni subsp. doylei, which has also been shown to be associated with bacteremia in humans. These included the degradation of the cytolethal distending toxin operon and similarities between the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis loci. The phase-variable GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.47) (wcbK, CAMP1649), associated with the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, may play a central role in ST-677 CC conferring acid and serum resistance during different stages of infection. Homology-based searches revealed several additional novel features and characteristics, including two putative type Vb secretion systems and a novel restriction modification/methyltransferase gene cluster, putatively associated with pathogenesis and niche adaptation.


Manninen M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Manninen M.,Finnish Food Safety Authority | Honkavaara M.,Finnish Meat Research Institute | Jauhiainen L.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2011

The aim of the present experiment was to study the effects of (1) digestibility of grass-red clover silage (GCS) and (2) concentrate protein concentration on the performance, eating quality and economy of Hereford bulls during a six months pre-slaughter period, and reared in cold indoor facilities. Thirty-one bulls with an initial live weight (LW) of 289 kg were selected for a 2 × 2 factorial design experiment consisting of two primary growth GCSs harvested at different maturities (in vitro digestible organic matter (OM) in dry matter (DM), D value: Early-cut, E, 750 g kg-1 DM; Late-cut, L, 699 g kg-1 DM) and two concentrate crude protein concentrations (Medium, M, 170 g kg-1 DM; High, H, 210 g kg-1 DM). The concentrate comprised milled barley and pelleted commercial protein compound and was offered daily on average 3.2 kg DM, including 0.45 and 1.13 kg of rapeseed cake in M and H, respectively. Grass-red clover silage was offered ad libitum. The target cold carcass weight was 330 kg.The proportion of concentrate of the total daily DM intake averaged 0.337 during the entire experiment. Treatments had no effect on the daily intake of GCS, total intake of DM, DM intake kg-1 LW0.75 and metabolizable energy averaging 6.0 and 9.4 kg DM, 97.4 g and 109.4 MJ, respectively. The digestibility of dietary OM and neutral detergent fibre was lower (p < 0.05, 0.733 vs. 0.769 and 0.625 vs. 0.665) on diet L than on diet E. The animals on diet E tended to consume daily on average 1.29 kg less (p < 0.10) DM kg-1 net weight gain than those on diet L. The time to achieve the target carcass weight was on average 18 days longer (p < 0.01) on diet L than on diet E. During the entire experiment the LW gain averaged 1795 and 1609 g d-1 (p < 0.01) on diets E and L, respectively. The concentrate protein concentration did not affect animal performance. Treatments had no significant effect on the kill-out proportion, EUROP carcass conformation and carcass fat classification which averaged 537 g kg-1, 6.5 and 3.6, respectively. The eating quality of the tested loins was good. Treatments had only a minor effect on the yield of valuable cuts. It is concluded that the digestibility of silage is important since the early-cut silage improved the growth rate and shortened the finishing period of bulls significantly compared with those fed late-cut silage. The lower yield and, thus, higher unit cost of early-cut silage may, however, invalidate its superiority compared with the late-cut silage. There was no benefit from using concentrate of high protein concentration. © Agricultural and Food Science.


Pesonen M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Honkavaara M.,Finnish Meat Research Institute | Huuskonen A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2012

The objective of the experiment was to study the performance, carcass traits and meat quality of purebred Aber-deen Angus (Ab) and Limousin (Li) bulls and Ab×Li crossbred bulls offered grass silage-grain-based rations and raised to heavy carcass weights. The experiment included eight bulls in all breed groups. The average slaughter age for all breeds was 540 days and the mean carcass weights for the Ab, Ab×Li and Li bulls were 391, 399 and 439 kg, respec-tively. Significant breed differences in carcass traits and meat quality were observed. The Limousin bulls tended to achieve a higher conformation score, produced less fat and had a higher percentage of valuable cuts compared with the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The crossbred Ab×Li bulls produced better conformed carcasses and a higher share of the rounds compared to the pure Ab bulls which indicate that this type of crossbreeding can enhance beef pro-duction under the studied conditions.


Huuskonen A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Joki-Tokola E.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Honkavaara M.,Finnish Meat Research Institute | Tuomisto L.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Kauppinen R.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2010

The objective of the present study was to compare the colour, chemical composition, meat quality and fatty acid profle of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing bulls housed in an insulated tie-stall, an uninsulated barn or a forest paddock. Two housing experiments were conducted at the North Ostrobothnia Research Station of MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Ruukki (64°44'N, 25°15'E). The frst experiment was conducted from November 1999 to October 2000 and comprised 30 Hereford bulls, the second from November 2000 to December 2001 with 30 Ayrshire bulls. In both experiments the bulls were divided into six groups of fve animals according to live weight and the groups were randomly allotted to one of three treatments: tie-stall in an insulated barn (IB bulls, ten animals/individual stall), uninsulated barn (UB bulls, fve animals/pen, two pens) and forest paddock (PAD bulls, fve animals/paddock, two paddocks). Nine carcasses from experiment 1 (three/treatment) and twelve from experiment 2 (four/treatment) were randomly selected for meat quality analyses. After slaughter, the carcasses were cooled for 24h at 2 °C and LD samples were taken by complete cross-section between the 12th and 13th ribs. The results were calculated across the two experiments and analysed as one data. There were no differences between housing environments in temperature or pH of the LD or meat moisture, fat or protein composition of the LD. Instead, the myoglobin content of the LD was 21% higher in PAD bulls than in IB bulls (p < 0.05). Between IB and UB bulls there was no difference in meat myoglobin content and there were no signifcant (p < 0.05) differences between housing environments in the colour of the LD. However, the muscle tended to be 6% lighter (L-value) in IB bulls than in PAD bulls (p=0.09). There were no signifcant differences in shear force or sensory analysis (tenderness, juiciness, overall favour) between treatments. The LD of the PAD bulls contained a higher proportion of 18:2 and 18:3 fatty acids compared to that of IB bulls (p < 0.05). There were no signifcant differences in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) or monounsaturated fatty acid proportions of the LD between treatments. Instead, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion of the LD was 34% higher in PAD bulls than in IB bulls (p < 0.05). The PUFA:SFA ratio was higher in PAD bulls than in IB bulls (p < 0.05) but there was no difference in the PUFA:SFA ratio between UB and IB bulls. In conclusion, there were no important effects of housing system on the meat quality characteristics of the LD, although according to meat fatty acid profles, outdoor housed bulls produced meat with a higher PUFA:SFA ratio than tethered bulls in an insulated barn. © Agricultural and Food Science.


Huuskonen A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Jansson S.,Agency for Rural Affairs | Honkavaara M.,Finnish Meat Research Institute | Tuomisto L.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Kauppinen R.,Savonia University of Applied Sciences
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A: Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of grazed grass (PAS bulls) and grass silage-based (UB bulls) diets on the performance, intramuscular fatty acid composition and muscle colour of finishing dairy bulls with similar concentrate allowances, ages and carcass weights. There were no differences in gain, carcass conformation, carcass fat score or meat colour between treatments. The dressing proportion of the PAS bulls was 3% higher than that of the UB bulls (pB0.01). The Longissimus muscle (LM) of the UB bulls contained a higher proportion of 14:0 and 16:0 fatty acids and saturated fatty acids than that of the PAS bulls (p < 0.05). The LM of the PAS bulls contained a higher proportion of 18:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids than that of the UB bulls (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the 18:2 cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid or monounsaturated fatty acid profiles between treatments. © 2010 Taylor and Francis.


Huuskonen A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Jansson S.,Agency for Rural Affairs | Honkavaara M.,Finnish Meat Research Institute | Tuomisto L.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of grazed grass (PAS bulls) and grass silage-based (UB bulls) diets on muscle colour, intramuscular fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics of Hereford bulls with similar concentrate allowances, ages, growth rates and carcass weights. The carcass fat score of the UB bulls was 14% higher than that of the PAS bulls (P < 0.05). Muscle lightness was 5%, redness 5% and yellowness 8% higher in the UB bulls than in the PAS bulls (P < 0.05). The Longissimus muscle (LM) of the UB bulls contained a higher proportion of 14:1 and 16:0 fatty acids compared to that of the PAS bulls (P < 0.05). In contrast, the LM of the PAS bulls contained a higher proportion of 18:3n-3 fatty acid and 18:2 cis-9 trans-11 CLA compared to that of the UB bulls (P < 0.01). There were no differences in saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid or polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions of the LM muscle between treatments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Pesonen M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Honkavaara M.,Finnish Meat Research Institute | Huuskonen A.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica A: Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

The objective of the experiment was to study performance and meat quality aspects of pure-bred Hereford (Hf) and Charolais (Ch) bulls and Hf×Ch cross-bred bulls offered grass silage-grain-based rations and raised to heavy carcass weights (CWs). The average slaughter age for all breeds was 565 days and the mean CWs for Hf, Hf×Ch and Ch bulls were 414, 476 and 507 kg, respectively. The Ch bulls tended to achieve higher weight gains, produce less fat and had a higher percentage of valuable cuts in comparison with Hf bulls. Breed group had no significant effects on the beef flavour of Musculus longissimus lumborum, but tenderness and juiciness were better in the meat of Hf bulls than that of Ch bulls. The cross-bred Hf×Ch bulls produced heavier and better conformed carcasses compared to pure Hf bulls which indicate that this type of cross-breeding can enhance beef production under the conditions studied. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Pesonen M.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Honkavaara M.,Finnish Meat Research Institute | Kamarainen H.,University of Eastern Finland | Tolonen T.,University of Oulu | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2013

The objectives of this experiment with Hereford (Hf) and Charolais (Ch) bulls offered grass silage-based diets were to determine the effects on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of the proportion of concentrate in the diet, and the inclusion of rapeseed meal (RSM) in the barley-based concentrate. The two concentrate proportions were 200 and 500 g kg-1 dry matter, fed without or with RSM. The Ch bulls tended to achieve higher gain, produced less fat, had a higher percentage of meat from high-priced joints and had a lower degree of marbling in their meat compared to the Hf bulls. Dry matter and energy intakes, growth performance and carcass conformation improved with increasing concentrate level. Intake parameters and conformation improved more with the Ch bulls than with the Hf bulls as a consequence of increased concentrate allowance. RSM had only limited effects on the performance, carcass traits or meat quality.

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