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Cerullo V.,Finnish Institute of Molecular Medicine | Cerullo V.,University of Helsinki | Pesonen S.,Finnish Institute of Molecular Medicine | Pesonen S.,University of Helsinki | And 43 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) can mediate antitumor effects by recruiting natural killer cells and by induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cells through antigen-presenting cells. Oncolytic tumor cell-killing can produce a potent costimulatory danger signal and release of tumor epitopes for antigen-presenting cell sampling. Therefore, an oncolytic adenovirus coding for GMCSF was engineered and shown to induce tumor-specific immunity in an immunocompetent syngeneic hamster model. Subsequently, 20 patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapies were treated with Ad5-D24-GMCSF. Of the 16 radiologically evaluable patients, 2 had complete responses, 1 had a minor response, and 5 had disease stabilization. Responses were frequently seen in injected and noninjected tumors. Treatment was well tolerated and resulted in the induction of both tumor-specific and virus-specific immunity as measured by ELISPOT and pentamer analysis. This is the first time that oncolytic virus-mediated antitumor immunity has been shown in humans. Ad5-D24-GMCSF is promising for further clinical testing. ©2010 AACR.

Aho V.,University of Helsinki | Ollila H.M.,University of Helsinki | Ollila H.M.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Ollila H.M.,Finnish Institute of Molecular Medicine | And 23 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9) was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4) spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472). Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-κB signaling (P<0.005). Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases. © 2013 Aho et al.

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