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Helsinki, Finland

Suominen K.,Finnish Food Safety Authority | Verta M.,Finnish Environment Institute | Marttinen S.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP. +. NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP. +. NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Suojala L.,University of Helsinki | Kaartinen L.,Finnish Food Safety Authority | Pyorala S.,University of Helsinki
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli can range from being a subclinical infection of the mammary gland to a severe systemic disease. Cow-dependent factors such as lactation stage and age affect the severity of coliform mastitis. Evidence for the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment for E. coli mastitis is very limited. Antimicrobial resistance is generally not a limiting factor for treatment, but it should be monitored to detect changes in resistance profiles. The only antimicrobials for which there is some scientific evidence of beneficial effects in the treatment for E. coli mastitis are fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. Both are critically important drugs, the use of which in animals destined for food should be limited to specific indications and should be based on bacteriological diagnosis. The suggested routine protocol in dairy herds could target the primary antimicrobial treatment for mastitis, specifically infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. In E. coli mastitis with mild to moderate clinical signs, a non-antimicrobial approach (anti-inflammatory treatment, frequent milking and fluid therapy) should be the first option. In cases of severe E. coli mastitis, parenteral administration of fluoroquinolones, or third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, is recommended due to the risk of unlimited growth of bacteria in the mammary gland and ensuing bacteremia. Evidence for the efficacy of intramammary-administered antimicrobial treatment for E. coli mastitis is so limited that it cannot be recommended. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have documented the efficacy in the treatment for E. coli mastitis and are recommended for supportive treatment for clinical mastitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Nuotio L.,Finnish Food Safety Authority | Schneitz C.,Orion Corporation | Nilsson O.,National Veterinary Institute SVA
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and class C serine β-lactamases (pAmpC) able to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins are a recognized threat to the efficacy of these drugs in treating serious infections. Broiler chicks are a known source of Escherichia coli harboring genes for these enzymes. Competitive exclusion (CE) has been used for decades in Finland to prevent the colonization of broiler ceca by Salmonella, but has not been widely used in Sweden. The markedly different prevalences of ESBL- or pAmpC-producing E. coli at slaughter in broilers produced in the 2 countries suggest a potential role for CE. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of a commercial CE product in reducing the colonization of broiler ceca by ESBL- or pAmpC-producing E. coli. The challenge organisms were isolated from healthy broilers in Sweden. Each E. coli strain (1 ESBL and 2 pAmpC types) was subjected to 4 replicate trials. In each trial, a group of 20 newly hatched Ross breed chicks were treated by gavage with the CE product, whereas another group of 20 was left untreated. The next day, all 40 chicks were inoculated by gavage with the E. coli strain. The chicks were reared in cardboard boxes and received feed and water ad libitum. After a week the chicks were asphyxiated with CO2, and their ceca removed and examined for the presence of the E. coli strains. The median and quartiles of the challenge E. coli estimates in the groups were determined, and the treated and control groups were compared with the Wilcoxon 2-sample test. In each trial, a substantial and statistically significant or highly significant reduction was observed in the colonization of the ceca of CE- treated chicks by E. coli strains, compared with that of untreated control. Referring to an arbitrary criterion for high shedders presented in the literature, it was concluded that at least for the ESBL E. coli, the results were also of epidemiological relevance. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Jokelainen P.,University of Helsinki | Nylund M.,Finnish Food Safety Authority
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2012

Toxoplasma gondii parasites belonging to endemic genotype II caused fatal infection in three (16%) of 19 Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) sent for necropsy in Finland between May 2006 and April 2009. The liver, spleen, and lungs were the organs most affected in all three cases, and high numbers of T. gondii parasites were visualized immunohistochemically in all the tissue samples available from them. The genotyping of the parasite strains was based on the results of analysis of length polymorphism at six microsatellite markers (B18, TUB2, TgM-A, W35, B17, and M33). The length of the PCR product at the additional seventh marker (M48) was 233 base pairs from the first two cases that were found dead together, suggesting a common infection source, and 215 base pairs from the third. Eurasian red squirrels may be exceptionally susceptible to T. gondii infection. © Wildlife Disease Association 2012. Source

Ketola R.A.,University of Helsinki | Hakala K.S.,Finnish Food Safety Authority
Current Drug Metabolism | Year: 2010

Glucuronidation is one of the main phase II metabolic reactions in humans and animals. A variety of analytical techniques and methods have been used for the detection and quantification of glucuronides of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds from different biological samples of humans and animals. Drug metabolism has been extensively studied with both in vitro and in vivo experiments under various conditions. The purpose of this review is to explore in detail the benefits and drawbacks of different liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC/MS) methods and techniques in detection and identification of all forms of glucuronide conjugates from in vitro, biological, and environmental samples. The entire analytical procedure is covered, from sample treatment, separation, and ionization to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The aim of this review is not to cover every published paper where glucuronides are identified and/or quantified, but rather to focus on special cases where a new analytical approach or technical development has led to a better, more specific, or more comprehensive detection, identification, or quantitation of glucuronide conjugates. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

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