Santiago, Chile
Santiago, Chile

Universidad Finis Terrae is a Chilean university. It is a private autonomous institution in Santiago de Chile owned by the Anahuac University Network. Wikipedia.


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Burke L.M.,Australian Institute of Sport | Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2014

Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Penailillo L.,Edith Cowan University | Penailillo L.,Finis Terrae University | Blazevich A.,Edith Cowan University | Numazawa H.,Rikkyo University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: Eccentric cycling is an exercise modality that could elicit multiple health benefits with low metabolic cost, but unaccustomed performance results in significant muscle damage. It is not known whether muscle damage is attenuated when eccentric cycling is repeated; thus, this study compared metabolic and muscle damage responses to concentric (CONC) and two consecutive eccentric (ECC1 and ECC2) cycling bouts. METHODS: Ten men (28 ± 8 yr) performed each cycling bout for 30 min at 60% of the maximal concentric power output at 60 rpm, with 2 wk between bouts. HR, oxygen consumption (V̇O2), blood lactate (BLa), RPE, and muscle activity (EMG) data were collected during cycling. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extensor (MVC) strength, squat (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, muscle soreness indicators, and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after, and 1-4 d after exercise. RESULTS: Average HR, V̇O2, BLa, and RPE were lower (P < 0.05) during ECC1 than CONC, and EMG amplitude was also lower during ECC1 than CONC. Decreases in MVC, CMJ, and SJ and the increase in muscle soreness were greater (P x0003C; 0.05) after ECC1 than CONC. Increases in creatine kinase were minimal after all bouts. When comparing ECC1 and ECC2, HR and BLa were lower (P < 0.05) during ECC2 than ECC1, and decreases in MVC, CMJ, and SJ and the increase in muscle soreness were greater (P < 0.05) after ECC1 than ECC2. After ECC2, MVC, CMJ, and SJ did not change and no muscle soreness was developed. CONCLUSIONS: Eccentric cycling was less metabolically demanding than concentric cycling, and HR and BLa were further reduced during ECC2. Muscle damage is minimal after ECC2 and should not influence the choice to undertake eccentric cycling training. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.


Ronnestad B.R.,Lillehammer University College | Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2014

Here we report on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or explosive strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists. Running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with either heavy or explosive strength training. However, heavy strength training is recommended for improving cycling economy. Equivocal findings exist regarding the effects on power output or velocity at the lactate threshold. Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can increase running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax, respectively) or time to exhaustion at Vmax and Wmax. Combining endurance training with either explosive or heavy strength training can improve running performance, while there is most compelling evidence of an additive effect on cycling performance when heavy strength training is used. It is suggested that the improved endurance performance may relate to delayed activation of less efficient type II fibers, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-twitch type IIX fibers into more fatigue-resistant type IIA fibers, or improved musculo-tendinous stiffness. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Correa T.,Diego Portales University | Pavez I.,Finis Terrae University
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication | Year: 2016

This study explored the interplay between contextual and individual factors related to Internet adoption in isolated rural communities. By investigating 10 remote villages throughout Chile that received Internet access infrastructure in 2010-2011, we identified 3 areas in which contextual and individual factors are intertwined. First, the geographical isolation shaped people's personality and attitudes towards new experiences, including digital technologies. Second, the communities' aging population also represented a strong challenge because they lack young people, a relevant technology socialization agent. Finally, jobs and economic activities are related to people's (lack of) motivations and needs towards digital technologies. When the Internet has reached the vast majority of the population, isolated communities confront specific challenges that we need to consider in policy-making decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Penailillo L.,Edith Cowan University | Penailillo L.,Finis Terrae University | Blazevich A.J.,Edith Cowan University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

A single bout of eccentric exercise confers a protective effect against muscle damage and soreness in subsequent eccentric exercise bouts, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect are unclear. Purpose: This study compared vastus lateralis (VL) muscle-tendon behavior between two eccentric cycling bouts to test the hypothesis that muscle-tendon behavior would be different between bouts andwould be associated with the protective effect. Methods: Eleven untrained men (27.1 T 7.0 yr) performed two bouts of eccentric cycling (ECC1 and ECC2) separated by 2 wk for 10 min at 65% of maximal concentric workload (191.9 T 44.2 W) each. Muscle soreness (by visual analog scale) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque of the knee extensors were assessed before and 1-2 d after exercise. Using ultrasonography, VL fascicle length and angle changes during cycling were assessed, and tendinous tissue (TT) length changes were estimated. VL EMG amplitude, crank torque, and knee joint angles were measured during cycling. Results: Soreness was greater (P < 0.0001) after ECC1 than ECC2, although MVC changes were not different between bouts (P = 0.47). No significant differences in peak EMG amplitude (normalized to EMG during MVC), crank peak torque, or knee angleswere evident between bouts.However, fascicle elongation was 16%less during ECC2 than ECC1 (P < 0.01), indicating less fascicle strain in ECC2.Maximum TT length occurred at a smaller knee joint angle during ECC2 than ECC1 (P = 0.055). Conclusion: These results suggest that a lesser fascicle elongation and earlier TT elongation were associated with reduced muscle soreness after ECC2 than ECC1; thus, changes in muscle-tendon behavior may be an important mechanism underpinning the protective effect. © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.


Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2014

Detailed accounts of the training programs followed by today's elite triathletes are lacking in the sport-science literature. This study reports on the training program of a world-class female triathlete preparing to compete in the London 2012 Olympic Games. Over 50 wk, she performed 796 sessions (303 swim, 194 bike, 254 run, 45 strength training), ie, 16 ± 4 sessions/wk (mean ± SD). Swim, bike, and run training volumes were, respectively, 1230 km (25 ± 8 km/wk), 427 h (9 ± 3 h/wk), and 250 h (5 ± 2 h/wk). Training tasks were categorized and prescribed based on heart-rate values and/or speeds and power outputs associated with different blood lactate concentrations. Training performed at intensities below her individual lactate threshold (ILT), between the ILT and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and above the OBLA for swim were 74% ± 6%, 16% ± 2%, 10% ± 2%; bike 88% ± 3%, 10% ± 1%, 2.1% ± 0.2%; and run 85% ± 2%, 8.0% ± 0.3%, 6.7% ± 0.3%. Training organization was adapted to the busy competition calendar (18 events, of which 8 were Olympic-distance triathlons) and continuously responded to emerging information. Training volumes were 35-80% higher than those previously reported for elite male and female triathletes, but training intensity and tapering strategies successfully followed recommended best practice for endurance athletes. This triathlete placed 7th in London 2012, and her world ranking improved from 14th to 8th at the end of 2012. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Penailillo L.,Edith Cowan University | Penailillo L.,Finis Terrae University | Blazevich A.,Edith Cowan University | Numazawa H.,Rikkyo University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2015

This study tested the hypothesis that rate of force development (RFD) would be a more sensitive indirect marker of muscle damage than maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) peak torque. Ten men performed one concentric cycling and two eccentric cycling (ECC1, ECC2) bouts for 30min at 60% of maximal concentric power output with 2 weeks between bouts. MVC peak torque, RFD, and vastus lateralis electromyogram amplitude and mean frequency were measured during a knee extensor MVC before, immediately after and 1-2 days after each bout. The magnitude of decrease in MVC peak torque after exercise was greater (P<0.05) for ECC1 (11-25%) than concentric cycling (2-12%) and ECC2 (0-16%). Peak RFD and RFD from 0-30ms, 0-50ms, 0-100ms, to 0-200ms decreased (P<0.05) immediately after all cycling bouts without significant differences between bouts, but RFD at 100-200ms interval (RFD100-200) decreased (P<0.05) at all time points after ECC1 (24-32%) and immediately after ECC2 (23%), but did not change after CONC. The magnitude of decrease in RFD100-200 was 7-19% greater than that of MVC peak torque after ECC1 (P<0.05). It is concluded that RFD100-200 is a more specific and sensitive indirect marker of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than MVC peak torque. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


The literature proposes that the scientific production of the students of medicine and health sciences in Latin American countries is very poor and contradicts one of the key functions of universities when the concept of Knowledge Society is taken into account. The sequential and systematic application of courses related with the Research Methodology decreased the unsatisfactory indicators when applied to students at the Fines Terrae University Medical School (Chile). It was observed that those students who received the aforesaid courses were able to successfully complete their scientific investigation. Some of them were able to present their results in scientific meetings, whilst others could also produce publications. The referred system generates conditions for developing interdisciplinary processes (basic and preclinical subjects and approaching to clinical ones), contributes to diminishing the poor indicators linked to Student Scientific Production, guarantees that all students may acquire investigative competences, even under critical circumstances, and collaborates with the approach between Faculties of Health Sciences and the Knowledge Society. © 2011 Universidad del Valle, Facultad de Salud.


Boullosa D.A.,Catholic University of Brasília | Abreu L.,Independent Researcher Lavadores | Varela-Sanz A.,University of La Coruña | Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

Every 4 years, approximately 10,000 athletes participate in the Olympic Games. These athletes have dedicated several years of physical training to achieve the best possible performance on a given day. Their preparation has been supported by expert coaches and an army of sport scientists, whose overall responsibility is to ensure that the athletes are in peak condition for their event. Although every athlete prepares specifically for the unique physiological challenges of their event, all athletes have one common characteristic: they are Homo sapiens. They share a unique genome, which is the result of evolutionary forces beyond their individual control. Although studies on the influence of different genetic polymorphisms on selected athletic events have been proven to be of limited utility, a body of evidence - from molecular biology to whole-body measures - suggests that training adaptations are enhanced when the stimulus closely resembles the activity pattern of human ancestors. Because genetic evolutionary changes occur slowly in Homo sapiens, and the traditional physical activity and dietary patterns of Homo sapiens have undergone rapid and dramatic changes in previous centuries, we propose that modern humans are physiologically better adapted to training modes and nutritional strategies similar to the ones that their hominid ancestors evolved on, rather than those supported by modern societies. Such an ancestral pattern was mainly characterized by the prevalence of daily bouts of prolonged, low-intensity, aerobic-based activities interspersed with periodic, short-duration, high-intensity bursts of activity. On some occasions, such activity patterns were undertaken with low carbohydrate availability. Specific activities that enhanced strength and power were typically performed after aerobic activities. We present scientific evidence to support the appropriateness of this model, and we propose that future studies should address this hypothesis in a multitude of different sporting activities, by assessing the genetic responses to and performance-based outcomes of different training stimuli. Such information would provide data on which sport scientists and coaches could better prepare athletes and manage their training process. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Gonzalez-Cabrera C.,University of Chile | Garrido-Charad F.,University of Chile | Roth A.,University of Chile | Marin G.J.,University of Chile | Marin G.J.,Finis Terrae University
Journal of Comparative Neurology | Year: 2015

Retinal inputs to the optic tectum (TeO) triggered by moving stimuli elicit synchronized feedback signals from two isthmic nuclei: the isthmi parvocelullaris (Ipc) and isthmi semilunaris (SLu). Both of these nuclei send columnar axon terminals back to the same tectal position receiving the retinal input. The feedback signals from the Ipc seem to act as an attentional spotlight by selectively boosting the propagation of retinal inputs from the tectum to higher visual areas. Although Ipc and SLu nuclei are widely considered cholinergic because of their immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), contradictory findings, including the expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) mRNA in Ipc neurons, have raised doubts about the purely cholinergic nature of this nucleus. In this study, in chicks, we revise the neurochemical identity of the isthmic nuclei by using in situ hybridization assays for VGluT2 along with three cholinergic markers: the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) and ChAT. We found that neurons in the SLu showed strong mRNA expression of all three cholinergic markers, whereas the expression of VAChT mRNA in the Ipc was undetectable in our essays. Instead, Ipc neurons exhibited a strong expression of VGluT2 mRNA. Immunohistochemistry assays showed VGluT2 immunoreactivity in the TeO codistributing with anterogradely labeled Ipc axon-terminal boutons, further supporting a glutamatergic function for the Ipc nucleus. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that, in the chick, whereas the feedback from the SLu to the TeO is indeed cholinergic, the feedback from the Ipc has a marked glutamatergic component. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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