Santiago, Chile

Finis Terrae University
Santiago, Chile

Universidad Finis Terrae is a Chilean university. It is a private autonomous institution in Santiago de Chile owned by the Anahuac University Network. Wikipedia.

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Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2017

Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance, and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation, and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration. Other methods in use in endurance sports include speed measurement and the measurement of power output, made possible by recent technological advances such as power meters in cycling and triathlon. Among subjective methods of quantification, rating of perceived exertion stands out because of its wide use. Concurrent assessments of the various quantification methods allow researchers and practitioners to evaluate stress/recovery balance, adjust individual training programs, and determine the relationships between external load, internal load, and athletes' performance. This brief review summarizes the most relevant external-and internal-workload-quantification methods in endurance sports and provides practical examples of their implementation to adjust the training programs of elite athletes in accordance with their individualized stress/recovery balance. © 2017 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Marin G.J.,University of Chile | Marin G.J.,Finis Terrae University | Duran E.,University of Chile | Morales C.,University of Chile | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

When a salient object in the visual field captures attention, the neural representation of that object is enhanced at the expense of competing stimuli. How neural activity evoked by a salient stimulus evolves to take precedence over the neural activity evoked by other stimuli is a matter of intensive investigation. Here, we describe in pigeons (Columba livia) how retinal inputs to the optic tectum (TeO, superior colliculus in mammals), triggered by moving stimuli, are selectively relayed on to the rotundus (Rt, caudal pulvinar) in the thalamus, and to its pallial target, the entopallium (E, extrastriate cortex).Weshow that two satellite nuclei of the TeO, the nucleus isthmi parvocelullaris (Ipc) and isthmi semilunaris (SLu), send synchronized feedback signals across tectal layers. Preventing the feedback from Ipc but not from SLu to a tectal location suppresses visual responses to moving stimuli from the corresponding region of visual space in all Rt subdivisions. In addition, the bursting feedback from the Ipc imprints a bursting rhythm on the visual signals, such that the visual responses of the Rt and the E acquire a bursting modulation significantly synchronized to the feedback from Ipc. As the Ipc feedback signals are selected by competitive interactions, the visual responses within the receptive fields in the Rt tend to synchronize with the tectal location receiving the "winning" feedback from Ipc. We propose that this selective transmission of afferent activity combined with the cross-regional synchronization of the areas involved represents a bottom-up mechanism by which salient stimuli capture attention. © 2012 the authors.

Ahumada-Galleguillos P.,University of Chile | Fernandez M.,University of Chile | Marin G.J.,University of Chile | Marin G.J.,Finis Terrae University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Neurology | Year: 2015

The dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) is one of the main components of the sauropsid pallium. In birds, the DVR is formed by an inner region, the nidopallium, and a more dorsal region, the mesopallium. The nidopallium contains discrete areas that receive auditory, visual, and multisensory collothalamic projections. These nidopallial nuclei are known to sustain reciprocal, short-range projections with their overlying mesopallial areas. Recent findings on the anatomical organization of the auditory DVR have shown that these short-range projections have a columnar organization that closely resembles that of the mammalian neocortex. However, it is unclear whether this columnar organization generalizes to other areas within the DVR. Here we examine in detail the organization of the visual DVR, performing small, circumscribed deposits of neuronal tracers as well as intracellular fillings in brain slices. We show that the visual DVR is organized in three main laminae, the thalamorecipient nucleus entopallium; a dorsally adjacent nidopallial lamina, the intermediate nidopallium; and a contiguous portion of the ventral mesopallium, the mesopallium ventrale. As in the case of the auditory DVR, we found a highly topographically organized system of reciprocal interconnections among these layers, which was formed by dorsoventrally oriented, discrete columnar bundles of axons. We conclude that the columnar organization previously demonstrated in the auditory DVR is not a unique feature but a general characteristic of the avian sensory pallium. We discuss these results in the context of a comparison between sauropsid and mammalian pallial organization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Burke L.M.,Australian Institute of Sport | Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2014

Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Ronnestad B.R.,Lillehammer University College | Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2014

Here we report on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or explosive strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists. Running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with either heavy or explosive strength training. However, heavy strength training is recommended for improving cycling economy. Equivocal findings exist regarding the effects on power output or velocity at the lactate threshold. Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can increase running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax, respectively) or time to exhaustion at Vmax and Wmax. Combining endurance training with either explosive or heavy strength training can improve running performance, while there is most compelling evidence of an additive effect on cycling performance when heavy strength training is used. It is suggested that the improved endurance performance may relate to delayed activation of less efficient type II fibers, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-twitch type IIX fibers into more fatigue-resistant type IIA fibers, or improved musculo-tendinous stiffness. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Penailillo L.,Edith Cowan University | Penailillo L.,Finis Terrae University | Blazevich A.J.,Edith Cowan University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

A single bout of eccentric exercise confers a protective effect against muscle damage and soreness in subsequent eccentric exercise bouts, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect are unclear. Purpose: This study compared vastus lateralis (VL) muscle-tendon behavior between two eccentric cycling bouts to test the hypothesis that muscle-tendon behavior would be different between bouts andwould be associated with the protective effect. Methods: Eleven untrained men (27.1 T 7.0 yr) performed two bouts of eccentric cycling (ECC1 and ECC2) separated by 2 wk for 10 min at 65% of maximal concentric workload (191.9 T 44.2 W) each. Muscle soreness (by visual analog scale) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque of the knee extensors were assessed before and 1-2 d after exercise. Using ultrasonography, VL fascicle length and angle changes during cycling were assessed, and tendinous tissue (TT) length changes were estimated. VL EMG amplitude, crank torque, and knee joint angles were measured during cycling. Results: Soreness was greater (P < 0.0001) after ECC1 than ECC2, although MVC changes were not different between bouts (P = 0.47). No significant differences in peak EMG amplitude (normalized to EMG during MVC), crank peak torque, or knee angleswere evident between bouts.However, fascicle elongation was 16%less during ECC2 than ECC1 (P < 0.01), indicating less fascicle strain in ECC2.Maximum TT length occurred at a smaller knee joint angle during ECC2 than ECC1 (P = 0.055). Conclusion: These results suggest that a lesser fascicle elongation and earlier TT elongation were associated with reduced muscle soreness after ECC2 than ECC1; thus, changes in muscle-tendon behavior may be an important mechanism underpinning the protective effect. © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2014

Detailed accounts of the training programs followed by today's elite triathletes are lacking in the sport-science literature. This study reports on the training program of a world-class female triathlete preparing to compete in the London 2012 Olympic Games. Over 50 wk, she performed 796 sessions (303 swim, 194 bike, 254 run, 45 strength training), ie, 16 ± 4 sessions/wk (mean ± SD). Swim, bike, and run training volumes were, respectively, 1230 km (25 ± 8 km/wk), 427 h (9 ± 3 h/wk), and 250 h (5 ± 2 h/wk). Training tasks were categorized and prescribed based on heart-rate values and/or speeds and power outputs associated with different blood lactate concentrations. Training performed at intensities below her individual lactate threshold (ILT), between the ILT and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and above the OBLA for swim were 74% ± 6%, 16% ± 2%, 10% ± 2%; bike 88% ± 3%, 10% ± 1%, 2.1% ± 0.2%; and run 85% ± 2%, 8.0% ± 0.3%, 6.7% ± 0.3%. Training organization was adapted to the busy competition calendar (18 events, of which 8 were Olympic-distance triathlons) and continuously responded to emerging information. Training volumes were 35-80% higher than those previously reported for elite male and female triathletes, but training intensity and tapering strategies successfully followed recommended best practice for endurance athletes. This triathlete placed 7th in London 2012, and her world ranking improved from 14th to 8th at the end of 2012. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Penailillo L.,Edith Cowan University | Penailillo L.,Finis Terrae University | Blazevich A.,Edith Cowan University | Numazawa H.,Rikkyo University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2015

This study tested the hypothesis that rate of force development (RFD) would be a more sensitive indirect marker of muscle damage than maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) peak torque. Ten men performed one concentric cycling and two eccentric cycling (ECC1, ECC2) bouts for 30min at 60% of maximal concentric power output with 2 weeks between bouts. MVC peak torque, RFD, and vastus lateralis electromyogram amplitude and mean frequency were measured during a knee extensor MVC before, immediately after and 1-2 days after each bout. The magnitude of decrease in MVC peak torque after exercise was greater (P<0.05) for ECC1 (11-25%) than concentric cycling (2-12%) and ECC2 (0-16%). Peak RFD and RFD from 0-30ms, 0-50ms, 0-100ms, to 0-200ms decreased (P<0.05) immediately after all cycling bouts without significant differences between bouts, but RFD at 100-200ms interval (RFD100-200) decreased (P<0.05) at all time points after ECC1 (24-32%) and immediately after ECC2 (23%), but did not change after CONC. The magnitude of decrease in RFD100-200 was 7-19% greater than that of MVC peak torque after ECC1 (P<0.05). It is concluded that RFD100-200 is a more specific and sensitive indirect marker of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than MVC peak torque. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

The literature proposes that the scientific production of the students of medicine and health sciences in Latin American countries is very poor and contradicts one of the key functions of universities when the concept of Knowledge Society is taken into account. The sequential and systematic application of courses related with the Research Methodology decreased the unsatisfactory indicators when applied to students at the Fines Terrae University Medical School (Chile). It was observed that those students who received the aforesaid courses were able to successfully complete their scientific investigation. Some of them were able to present their results in scientific meetings, whilst others could also produce publications. The referred system generates conditions for developing interdisciplinary processes (basic and preclinical subjects and approaching to clinical ones), contributes to diminishing the poor indicators linked to Student Scientific Production, guarantees that all students may acquire investigative competences, even under critical circumstances, and collaborates with the approach between Faculties of Health Sciences and the Knowledge Society. © 2011 Universidad del Valle, Facultad de Salud.

Gonzalez-Cabrera C.,University of Chile | Garrido-Charad F.,University of Chile | Roth A.,University of Chile | Marin G.J.,University of Chile | Marin G.J.,Finis Terrae University
Journal of Comparative Neurology | Year: 2015

Retinal inputs to the optic tectum (TeO) triggered by moving stimuli elicit synchronized feedback signals from two isthmic nuclei: the isthmi parvocelullaris (Ipc) and isthmi semilunaris (SLu). Both of these nuclei send columnar axon terminals back to the same tectal position receiving the retinal input. The feedback signals from the Ipc seem to act as an attentional spotlight by selectively boosting the propagation of retinal inputs from the tectum to higher visual areas. Although Ipc and SLu nuclei are widely considered cholinergic because of their immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), contradictory findings, including the expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) mRNA in Ipc neurons, have raised doubts about the purely cholinergic nature of this nucleus. In this study, in chicks, we revise the neurochemical identity of the isthmic nuclei by using in situ hybridization assays for VGluT2 along with three cholinergic markers: the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) and ChAT. We found that neurons in the SLu showed strong mRNA expression of all three cholinergic markers, whereas the expression of VAChT mRNA in the Ipc was undetectable in our essays. Instead, Ipc neurons exhibited a strong expression of VGluT2 mRNA. Immunohistochemistry assays showed VGluT2 immunoreactivity in the TeO codistributing with anterogradely labeled Ipc axon-terminal boutons, further supporting a glutamatergic function for the Ipc nucleus. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that, in the chick, whereas the feedback from the SLu to the TeO is indeed cholinergic, the feedback from the Ipc has a marked glutamatergic component. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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