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Universidad Finis Terrae is a Chilean university. It is a private autonomous institution in Santiago de Chile owned by the Anahuac University Network. Wikipedia.


Penailillo L.,Edith Cowan University | Penailillo L.,Finis Terrae University | Blazevich A.,Edith Cowan University | Numazawa H.,Rikkyo University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: Eccentric cycling is an exercise modality that could elicit multiple health benefits with low metabolic cost, but unaccustomed performance results in significant muscle damage. It is not known whether muscle damage is attenuated when eccentric cycling is repeated; thus, this study compared metabolic and muscle damage responses to concentric (CONC) and two consecutive eccentric (ECC1 and ECC2) cycling bouts. METHODS: Ten men (28 ± 8 yr) performed each cycling bout for 30 min at 60% of the maximal concentric power output at 60 rpm, with 2 wk between bouts. HR, oxygen consumption (V̇O2), blood lactate (BLa), RPE, and muscle activity (EMG) data were collected during cycling. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extensor (MVC) strength, squat (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, muscle soreness indicators, and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after, and 1-4 d after exercise. RESULTS: Average HR, V̇O2, BLa, and RPE were lower (P < 0.05) during ECC1 than CONC, and EMG amplitude was also lower during ECC1 than CONC. Decreases in MVC, CMJ, and SJ and the increase in muscle soreness were greater (P x0003C; 0.05) after ECC1 than CONC. Increases in creatine kinase were minimal after all bouts. When comparing ECC1 and ECC2, HR and BLa were lower (P < 0.05) during ECC2 than ECC1, and decreases in MVC, CMJ, and SJ and the increase in muscle soreness were greater (P < 0.05) after ECC1 than ECC2. After ECC2, MVC, CMJ, and SJ did not change and no muscle soreness was developed. CONCLUSIONS: Eccentric cycling was less metabolically demanding than concentric cycling, and HR and BLa were further reduced during ECC2. Muscle damage is minimal after ECC2 and should not influence the choice to undertake eccentric cycling training. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine.


Ronnestad B.R.,Lillehammer University College | Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2014

Here we report on the effect of combining endurance training with heavy or explosive strength training on endurance performance in endurance-trained runners and cyclists. Running economy is improved by performing combined endurance training with either heavy or explosive strength training. However, heavy strength training is recommended for improving cycling economy. Equivocal findings exist regarding the effects on power output or velocity at the lactate threshold. Concurrent endurance and heavy strength training can increase running speed and power output at VO2max (Vmax and Wmax, respectively) or time to exhaustion at Vmax and Wmax. Combining endurance training with either explosive or heavy strength training can improve running performance, while there is most compelling evidence of an additive effect on cycling performance when heavy strength training is used. It is suggested that the improved endurance performance may relate to delayed activation of less efficient type II fibers, improved neuromuscular efficiency, conversion of fast-twitch type IIX fibers into more fatigue-resistant type IIA fibers, or improved musculo-tendinous stiffness. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Burke L.M.,Australian Institute of Sport | Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2014

Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2014

Detailed accounts of the training programs followed by today's elite triathletes are lacking in the sport-science literature. This study reports on the training program of a world-class female triathlete preparing to compete in the London 2012 Olympic Games. Over 50 wk, she performed 796 sessions (303 swim, 194 bike, 254 run, 45 strength training), ie, 16 ± 4 sessions/wk (mean ± SD). Swim, bike, and run training volumes were, respectively, 1230 km (25 ± 8 km/wk), 427 h (9 ± 3 h/wk), and 250 h (5 ± 2 h/wk). Training tasks were categorized and prescribed based on heart-rate values and/or speeds and power outputs associated with different blood lactate concentrations. Training performed at intensities below her individual lactate threshold (ILT), between the ILT and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and above the OBLA for swim were 74% ± 6%, 16% ± 2%, 10% ± 2%; bike 88% ± 3%, 10% ± 1%, 2.1% ± 0.2%; and run 85% ± 2%, 8.0% ± 0.3%, 6.7% ± 0.3%. Training organization was adapted to the busy competition calendar (18 events, of which 8 were Olympic-distance triathlons) and continuously responded to emerging information. Training volumes were 35-80% higher than those previously reported for elite male and female triathletes, but training intensity and tapering strategies successfully followed recommended best practice for endurance athletes. This triathlete placed 7th in London 2012, and her world ranking improved from 14th to 8th at the end of 2012. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Penailillo L.,Edith Cowan University | Penailillo L.,Finis Terrae University | Blazevich A.J.,Edith Cowan University | Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

A single bout of eccentric exercise confers a protective effect against muscle damage and soreness in subsequent eccentric exercise bouts, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect are unclear. Purpose: This study compared vastus lateralis (VL) muscle-tendon behavior between two eccentric cycling bouts to test the hypothesis that muscle-tendon behavior would be different between bouts andwould be associated with the protective effect. Methods: Eleven untrained men (27.1 T 7.0 yr) performed two bouts of eccentric cycling (ECC1 and ECC2) separated by 2 wk for 10 min at 65% of maximal concentric workload (191.9 T 44.2 W) each. Muscle soreness (by visual analog scale) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque of the knee extensors were assessed before and 1-2 d after exercise. Using ultrasonography, VL fascicle length and angle changes during cycling were assessed, and tendinous tissue (TT) length changes were estimated. VL EMG amplitude, crank torque, and knee joint angles were measured during cycling. Results: Soreness was greater (P < 0.0001) after ECC1 than ECC2, although MVC changes were not different between bouts (P = 0.47). No significant differences in peak EMG amplitude (normalized to EMG during MVC), crank peak torque, or knee angleswere evident between bouts.However, fascicle elongation was 16%less during ECC2 than ECC1 (P < 0.01), indicating less fascicle strain in ECC2.Maximum TT length occurred at a smaller knee joint angle during ECC2 than ECC1 (P = 0.055). Conclusion: These results suggest that a lesser fascicle elongation and earlier TT elongation were associated with reduced muscle soreness after ECC2 than ECC1; thus, changes in muscle-tendon behavior may be an important mechanism underpinning the protective effect. © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

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