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Hradec Králové, Czech Republic

For an appropriate therapeutic decision about optimal tratment of colorectal carcinoma oncologist needs in addition to complete histopathological data summarizing morphological diagnosis, grade, stage and radicality of surgery also the mutation status of KRAS and NRAS genes. It is a pathologist's task to select the appropriate tissue block, optimal testing method as well as to control all phases of the testing process (pre-analytical and analytical phases and interpretation of results). Source

Dvorak J.,Klinika onkologie a radioterapie LF UK | Sitorova V.,Fingerlanduv ustav patologie LF UK | Nikolov D.H.,Fingerlanduv ustav patologie LF UK | Mokry J.,Ustav histologie a embryologie LF UK | And 4 more authors.
Onkologie | Year: 2011

The primary cilium is a sensory organelle protruding in the quiescent phase of the cell cycle from the surface of the majority of human cells, including embryonic cells, stem cells and stromal cells of malignant tumors. The presence of primary cilium on the cell surface is transient, limited to the quiescent G1 (G0) phase, as well as the beginning of the S phase of the cell cycle. Primary cilium is formed from the centriole. Most cancer cells do not posses the primary cilium, with some exceptions, such as tumors depending on the Hedgehog pathway -e.g. basal cell carcinoma or medulloblastoma. The primary cilium is present also in cells of triple negative breast carcinoma. Primary cilia are equiped with a variety of receptors, including mechanosensors, receptors for growth factors (EGFR, PDGFR), hormones (somatostatin), biologically active substances (serotonin) and morphogens (Hedgehog, Wnt). Multiple components of Hedgehog and Wnt pathways are localized in the primary cilium. In the human cells possessing the primary cilium (majority of the human cells) Hedgehog and Wnt pathways are located exclusively in primary cilium. The aim of this paper is review of the current knowledge of the biological functions of the primary cilia. Source

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