Santander, Colombia
Santander, Colombia

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Saroeun K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Ogle B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Preston T.R.,UTA TOSOLY Finca Ecologica | Borin K.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

A series of experiments were conducted at the farm of CelAgrid in Kandal Province, Cambodia. Experiment 1 consisted of two related cafeteria trials which were conducted to determine the feed preferences of local chickens when fed different feeds separately. The first trial was conducted for 4 weeks with 40 chickens allocated to 4 pens, with 10 birds per pen. They were given free access to three types of chopped green forages (taro leaf, duckweed and water spinach) and broken rice as source of energy. The daily dry matter (DM) intake of duckweed (3.9 g) was higher than that of water spinach (2.1 g), while the intake of taro leaf was relatively low (0.02 g). The daily crude protein (CP) intakes were 1.1 g, 0.5 g and 0.02 g for duckweed, water spinach and taro leaf, respectively. The second trial was conducted with the same duration and the same number of birds per pen. They were given free access to 3 types of fresh chopped carbohydrate feeds(cassava root, sweet potato tuber and banana fruit) and duckweed as the only source of protein The daily DM and CP intakes of sweet potato and cassava root were 16 g and 0.5 g, respectively, while the banana fruit intake was low. Experiment 2 was carried out for 2 weeks with 240 local chickens at the age of 60 days (144 females and 96 males). The chicks were housed 10 per pen (4 males and 6 females). The experiment was a 4*2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replications. The chickens had free access to each of the carbohydrates (broken rice, cassava root, sweet potato tuber, and banana fruit) and each of two proteins feeds (soybean meal and duckweed). The total daily DM intake of the broken rice diets was 32.0 g, and was 26.6 g, 24.0 g and 22.5 g of fresh cassava root, sweet potato tuber and banana fruit, respectively. The CP intake of chickens on duckweed was 19.2 g, which was lower than of those fed on soybean meal (34 g). The CP intake of chickens fed different carbohydrates was similar (5-7 g) but the CP intake of the chickens fed on soybean meal was higher (10.4 g) than on duckweed (2 g). The chicks did not gain weight on duckweed, except on the broken rice diets, and had normal growth on soybean meal (4-6 g). Through linear regression analysis, the DM intake was shown to have high relationship with the average daily gain (R2=0.70). Experiment 3 was carried out for 2 weeks with 210 local chickens (144 females and 96 males) at the age of 60 days. The chicks were housed 10 per pen (4 males and 6 females) and were allotted randomly to treatment. The experiment was 3*2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replications. Chickens had free access to each of three kinds of carbohydrate (cassava root, sweet potato tuber, and banana fruit) in the fresh form or as meal. The total daily DM intakes of the cassava root, sweet potato tuber and banana fruit diets were 21.0 g, 19.6 g and 29.0 g, respectively. The total intake of chickens fed the different forms of carbohydrate feed was not different and was around 20 g/day. The total daily CP intake was similar between the chickens fed on different types or forms of carbohydrate feed, and was around 1.5 g. Linear regression analysis showed that the weight change of chickens had a close relationship with the CP intake (p=0.011, r2=0.75).


Taysayavong L.,Champasack University | Preston T.R.,UTA TOSOLY Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Sixteen growing female pigs (8 Moo Laat and 8 Mong Cai) with an initial weight of 11 to 13 and 25 to 26 kg, respectively, were allocated to a 2*2 factorial arrangement with four replications of four treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The factors were: breed of pigs and supplementation with or without rice distillers' by-product. The basal diet was a mixture of rice bran and fresh water spinach. The diets were offered in amounts based on an expected DM intake of 4% of live weight. For the control diets (no distillers' byproduct) the water spinach comprised 30% of the diet DM. For the diets with rice distillers' by-product the proportions (% DM) were 70, 20 and 10 for rice bran, water spinach and rice distillers' byproduct, respectively. Mong Cai pigs grew faster than Moo Laat pigs but the latter tended to have better feed conversion. There was an interaction between breed and rice distillers' supplementation for DM intake per unit LW and live weight gain. Supplementation increased the intake and growth rate in the Mong Cai pigs. During the 6 weeks of the experiment the Moo Laat pigs fed the rice distillers' product grew more slowly than those not fed the supplement. During the final 6 weeks the response of the Moo Laat pigs was reversed with higher gains observed for the pigs fed the supplement. Coefficients of digestibility determined by the insoluble ash method were not affected by supplementation with rice distillers' by-product but appeared to be higher for the Mong Cai compared with the Moo Laat.


Sorphea S.,CelAgrid Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development | Lundh T.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Preston T.R.,UTA TOSOLY Finca Ecologica | Borin K.,UTA TOSOLY Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

Two experiments were conducted at CelAgrid, Kandal Province for a period of 80days. In experiment 1, 12 ponds each with area of 10m2 were used to compare four treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial with a completely randomized design with 3 replicates. The first factor was fertilizer with effluent and no effluent; the second factor was stocking density of 3 or 5 fish per m2. The fish in each pond were provided with feed at 5% of the fish biomass (DM basis). The feed contained 25% of water spinach, 25% of duck weed and 50% of rice bran (DM basis). The effluent from a bio-digester was applied every 7 days, at rates equivalent to 150 kg N/ha. Survival rate was higher in ponds fertilized with effluent and in ponds with lower fish density. There were no differences for gain in weight and length due to treatment, and no interaction between fertilizer and stocking density. However, these data were derived from random samples of fish taken at 20 day intervals and the results were partially confounded by differences among treatments in survival. Net fish yield was higher for the higher stocking density but there was no effect of fertilization with effluent. Feed conversion (DM offered/net fish yield) did not differ among treatments but this measurement was also confounded by differences in survival as amounts of feed offered were based on initial numbers of fish and the average weight estimated from the sampling at 20 day intervals. Final fish weight and net fish yield were negatively correlated with survival rate. In experiment 2, 12 plots in a paddy field each with an area of 209m2 were used to compare 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial in a completely randomized design with 3 replicates. The first factor was with or without feed supplement; the second factor was different stocking densities of 3 or 5 fish per m2. In each plot of paddy there was a trench 11m wide x 1m in length x 1m deep along one side of each plot. The feed supplement was the same as in experiment 1. All paddy plots were fertilized with effluent from a bio-digester every 7 days at the rate of 150 kg N per ha. Survival rate was not affected by supplementation but there was a tendency (P = 0.10) for it to be lower on the higher stocking rate. Both final weight of fish and the net fish yield were increased by supplementation and by stocking rate with no interaction between the treatments. The FCR (for those paddies that received feed supplementation) was not affected by stocking rate. In conclusion it would seem that in rice-fish systems, supplementation is not an appropriate intervention, in view of the lower efficiency of use of the supplement. Thus, for the additional 43 kg of net fish yield (123-80) in experiment 2, the amount of feed provided was on average 358 kg (7.5/209*10000), that is about 7.5 kg feed per 1 kg of net fish yield. Measures that lead to enhancement of the natural feed supply (e g: fertilization with bio-digester effluent) would seem to be more appropriate technology.

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