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Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica TOSOLY | Khang D.N.,Nong Lam University | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Sixteen male local "Yellow" cattle with initial weight 63-100kg were fed lime-treated rice straw and fresh cassava foliage in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with to two treatments: potassium nitrate or urea as NPN source. The NPN sources were dissolved in 100 g molasses diluted with 500 ml of water. The experiment lasted 120 days at the end of which concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide were determined in eructed gas mixed with aif in a closed chamber in which the animals were kept for 5 minutes prior to measurement of the gases so as to ensure equilibration of the eructed gases with the air in the chamber Daily live weight gain and DM feed conversion were improved by supplementation with nitrate rather than urea. There was no difference between treatments in DM intake. Feed intake as g DM/kg live weight and growth rate were linearly and positively related to initial live weight. The ratio of methane to carbon dioxide in the mixed eructed gas and air was decreased by feeding nitrate with an overall 25% reduction in methane emission, for animals fed nitrate compared with those fed urea. This is the first research to reportbetter growth rates and better feed conversion ratios when nitrate replaces urea in a low quality diet. This result mabe related to the pattern of feeding of the straw /molasses nitrate.diet which were given every 6 hours.


Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia | Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica TOSOLY
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of biochar on methane production from buffered ruminal fluid in an in vitro system using cassava root meal as substrate with either potassium nitrate or urea as the NPN source. Experiment 1: The treatments in 2*2 factorial arrangements with four replications of each treatment were: urea or potassium nitrate as NPN source; and presence or absence of 5% biochar. The quantity of substrate was 12 g DM to which was added 240 ml rumen fluid (from slaughtered buffalo) and 960 ml of buffer solution. The incubation was for 24 and 48hours with measurements of gas production, percent methane, substrate solubilized and methane produced per unit substrate solubilized. Gas production, methane percentage in the gas, substrate solubilized and methane produced per unit substrate solubilized were all lowered when nitrate replaced urea as the fermentable N source at either 24 or 48 hours of the incubation. Addition of biochar did not affect gas production but increased the percentage DM solubilized. Methane produced and methane produced per unit substrate solubilized was lowered by 14% due to addition of biochar when urea was the NPN source but was not affected when nitrate was the source of NPN. Experiment 2: The treatments in a 2*6 factorial with three replications were: (i) concentration of biochar (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% on DM basis); (ii) washing or no washing of the biochar. The substrate was cassava root meal and urea. The general procedure and analyses were similar to those in experiment 1. Methane produced was reduced by 11-13% by adding 1% biochar but there were no further benefits from increasing the biochar level to between 2 and 5%. Methane production and per unit substrate DM solubilized were reduced by about 5% by washed compared with unwashed biochar. Experiment 3: The design was a completely randomized comparison of: No biochar with urea, 0.5% biochar with urea, 1.0% biochar with urea, 1% biochar with 50% urea and 50% potassium nitrate and 1% biochar with 100% potassium nitrate (at 6% of diet DM). Biochar at 0.5% reduced methane by 10% and at 1% reduced it by 12.7%. With 50% nitrate N and 50% urea N, plus biochar at 1%, the reduction in methane was 40.5% and with 100% nitrate N plus biochar at 1%, it was 49%.


Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia | Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica TOSOLY
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

In an in vitro incubation the treatments in a 2*2 factorial arrangement were: rumen fluid from cattle previously fed biochar (BA), rumen fluid from cattle previously fed biochar + biochar added to the substrate (BA+BC), rumen fluid from cattle not previously fed biochar (NBA) and rumen fluid from cattle not previously fed biochar + biochar added to the substrate (NBA+BC). There were 4 replications of each treatment. The substrate contained (DM basis): 70% cassava root meal, 26.5-28% cassava leaf meal and 2% urea. In treatments BA+BC and NBA+BC the biochar was added at 1.5% of the substrate DM. These ingredients were mixed together in the incubation flask to which was added 480 ml of buffer solution and 120 ml of strained rumen fluid taken by stomach tube from cattle fed cassava root, cassava foliage and urea and either biochar (0.62% of diet DM) (for BA treatments) or no biochar (treatments NBA). Gas production and percentage substrate DM solubilized were increased, and percent methane in the gas was reduced, when: (i) the rumen fluid in the incubation flask was taken from cattle adapted to 0.62% biochar in their diet (DM basis) over a 4 month period; and (ii) when biochar was added to the incubation medium at 1.5% of DM. There were additive effects on methane reduction when rumen fluid from adapted cattle was combined with biochar added to the incubation medium.


Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica TOSOLY | Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Twelve local "Yellow" cattle with initial live weight ranging from 80 to 100 kg were assigned in a completely randomized block design to a 2*2 factorial arrangement of four treatments with three replications. The factors were: biochar at 0.6% of diet DM or none; and potassium nitrate at 6% of diet DM or urea at 1.83% of diet DM. The basal diet was cassava root chips fed ad libitum and fresh cassava foliage at 1% of LW (DM basis). Sodium sulphate and sodium chloride were added to the diet at the rate of 0.4% and 0.5% in the DM. The trial lasted 98 days following a 21 day adaptation to the diets. Live weight gain was increased 25% by adding biochar to the diet DM and tended to be decreased when nitrate replaced urea as the source of NPN. DM feed conversion was improved by biochar and by urea replacing nitrate. DM feed intake was not affected by supplementation with biochar nor by the NPN source. Both biochar and nitrate reduced methane production by 22 and 29%, respectively, the effects being additive (41% reduction) for the combination of biochar and nitrate.


Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica TOSOLY | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Two in vitro incubation experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that biochar would serve as support media for biofilm development in a biodigester and would as a result increase the yield of biogas whether added separately or enclosed in a nylon bag The treatments in experiment 1 were: control (no biochar), biochar added at 1% of the substrate DM in the biodigester, biochar added at 3% of the substrate DM in the biodigester. The substrate was fresh manure from cattle fed dried cassava root, fresh cassava foliage and urea. Proportions of water and manure were arranged so that the manure provided 5% of the solids in the biodigester. Gas production was measured daily over the fermentation period of 30 days; methane in the gas was measured after 21 and 28 days. In experiment 2, a 2*2 factorial arrangement with 4 replications was used to compare level of biochar: 1% of solids in the digester or none; and presence or absence of a cloth bag in the biodigester. The fermentation was followed over 21 days with daily measurement of gas production and content of methane in the gas at the end of the fermentation. In experiment 1, incorporation of 1% (DM basis) of biochar in the biodigester increased gas production by 31% after 30 days of continuous fermentation; there were no benefits from increasing the biochar to 3% of the substrate DM. The methane content of the gas increased with the duration of the fermentation (24% higher at 28 compared with 21 days) but was not affected by the presence of biochar in the incubation medium. In experiment 2, adding 1% of biochar (DM basis) to the substrate increased gas production by 35%, reduced methane content of the gas by 8%, increased the DM solubilized (by 2%) and increased methane production per unit substrate solubilized by 25%. Presence of the cloth bag increased gas production when it also contained biochar but decreased it when added to the biodigester without biochar. There was a similar interaction for methane produced per unit substrate solubilized.

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