Finca Ecologica

Socorro, Colombia

Finca Ecologica

Socorro, Colombia

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Phuong L.T.B.,Nong Lam University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing urea by calcium nitrate with or without supplementary sulfur (0, 0.4, 0.8% on DM basis) on methane production in an in vitro incubation medium inoculated with rumen fluid and using sugar cane stalk and cassava leaf meal as substrate. The design was a 3*2 factorial arrangement of the treatments with 4 replications. Compared with urea, calcium nitrate reduced methane production The effect was consistent over successive periods in the 48h incubation. Adding 0.4% sulfur, in the form of sodium sulphate, increased methane production, while 0.8% sulphur reduced methane production. When 0.8% sulfur was combined with nitrate the effects on methane reduction were additive. Methane production increased linearly with the length of the incubation on all treatments.


Inthapanya S.,Souphanouvong University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

An in vitro incubation system was used to evaluate the following treatments in a completely randomized 2*2 factorial arrangement with 4 replications; Cassava leaf meal plus urea (CLM-U), Cassava leaf meal plus calcium nitrate (CLM-CaN), Mimosa pigra leaf meal plus urea (MLM-U) and Mimosa leaf meal plus calcium nitrate (MLM-CaN). The basal substrate was cassava root meal. Gas production did not differ between calcium nitrate and urea but was higher for mimosa than for cassava leaf meal after 48 hours of fermentation. The percentage of methane in the gas was lower for calcium nitrate than for urea at all incubation times but the degree of difference decreased with the length of the incubation. There were no consistent differences between the the cassava and mimosa leaf meals in the methane content of the gas. The proportion of the substrate DM that was fermented in 48h did not differ between sources of NPN nor between the two leaf meals. Overall, the production of methane per unit of substrate fermented was decreased by 32% when calcium nitrate replaced by urea as the NPN source.


Thanh V.D.,Can Tho University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

An in vitro incubation was used to evaluate effects of Mangosteen peel extract with calcium nitrate or urea on methane production from a substrate of molasses and cassava leaf meal. The design was a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement in a completely random block design with four replications. Calcium nitrate as replacement for urea, and addition of Mangosteen extract, lowered methane production during the final phase (32 to 48h) of the incubation. Estimates of effects over the entire incubation period, based partially on results from similar experiments in the literature, support the effect of calcium nitrate in lowering methane production. The apparently beneficial effect of Mangosteen peel extract in reducing methane production needs to be substantiated by further research.


Phuong L.T.B.,Nong Lam University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | Leng R.A.,University of New England of Australia
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

This study was on the effect of variety (sweet or bitter) and processing (fresh or sun-dried) of cassava foliage on protein solubility and on methane production in an in vitrorumen fermentation in which the NPN sources were nitrate or urea. The sun-drying of cassava foliage reduced protein solubility and potential HCN release. The bitter varieties contained more HCN precursors and the protein was less soluble than in the sweet variety. Bitter varieties had lower crude protein solubility and higher potential release of HCN than the sweet variety. Sun-dried processing decreased N solubility and potential HCN release compared with fresh leaves. Nitrate compared with urea, and bitter compared with the sweet cassava, independently reduced methane production resulting in an overall reduction of 43% for the combination of the bitter varieties and supplementation with nitrate compared with the sweet variety and urea.


Duyet H.N.,Hue University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

The objectives of the present study were: (i) to evaluate silages made from a 50: 50 mixture (DM basis) of banana pseudo-stem and Taro foliage (leaves plus pseudo-stem) with or without additional molasses; and (ii) to determine effects on reproduction of Mong Cai sows of feeding the mixed banana-taro silage as replacement for rice bran. In experiment 1, mixtures (50: 50 DM basis) of banana pseudo-stems and taro foliage (leaves + pseudo-stems) were ensiled with or without 1% molasses (fresh basis). This ratio was chosen as it closely resembles rice bran in the content of crude protein in DM.In experiment 2, 20 Mong Cai sows were selected in 20 different farms in Phu Da commune (Phu Vang distict, Thua Thien Hue province). They were allocated to one of 5 treatments in which banana-taro silage replaced rice bran in proportions of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (DM basis). The pH of the mixed silage decreased rapidly to 4.3 within 3 days with little further change up to 30 days. Adding molasses to the silage reduced the pH but the effect was small. It was concluded that 50: 50mixtures (DM basis) of banana pseudo-stem and taro foliage could be ensiled satisfactorily without the need for additional molasses. The live weight gain during pregnancy and the live weight at farrowing were decreased and the live weight loss during lactation was increased, with linear trends, as the rice bran was replaced by banana-taro silage. The litter size at birth and numbers born alive were not affected by diet; however, birth weight, litter weight at weaning and litter size at weaning were all decreased by replacing rice bran with the taro-banana silage. The period from weaning to mating was increased when the taro-banana silage replaced rice bran, thus the reproductive cycle was longer and the predicted numbers of litters per year was deceased as the taro-banana silage replaced the rice bran. Feed intake during pregnancy was restricted to 1.5 kg/day per sow and this was all consumed on all treatments. During lactation when the offer level was ad libitum the intakes were decreased as the taro-banana silage replaced rice bran. The feed DM regestation, lactation,quired per kg of weaned piglet was lowest for taro-banana silage replacement of rice bran at the 50 and 25% levels.


Sokchea H.,Center for Livestock and Agriculture Development CelAgrid | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

A biotest with maize as indicator plant was used to measure the value as an amender of acid soil (pH 4.6) of biochar derived from gasification of rice husks. The experiment was designed as a 5 2 2 factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replicates. The factors were: source of biochar (from a downdraft gasifier reacgtor or an updraft gasifier stove). level of biochar (0, 2, 4, 6 or 8% added to the soil); and application of biodigester effluent (0 or 10 g N/m2). The biochar from the stove contained more ash (less organic matter) and the pH was higher compared with biochar from the gasifier. The yield of the aerial fraction and of total biomass of maize was 30% higher when the soil (pH 4.6) was amended (at 6 to 8% of the soil) with biochar from an updraft gasiifier stove than from a downdraft gasifier reactor. There was no effect of the level of biochar on maize growth in the absence of biodigester effluent but growth was increased 90% when biochar was incorporated at 6% of the soil and biodigester effluent was applied at 10g N/m2 over 30 days. Soil pH was raised from 4.6 to 4.9 and water holding capacity by 50% when 6-8% biochar was added to the soil.


Southavong S.,Champasack University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | van Man N.,Nong Lam University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

The hypothesis that was tested in the present study was that there would be a synergistic response in growth of water spinach when biodigester effluent with staggered application was combined with biochar derived from rice husk in an updraft TLUD stove. The experiment was carried out at the research centre of Champasack University, Lao PDR to measure changes in soil fertility as a function of the growth of water spinach plants over a 28 day period following seeding. A completely randomized design was used with 3 replications offifteen treatments in a 3*5 factorial arrangement. The factors were: soil amender (biochar or charcoal or none) at 40 tonnes/ha and level of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100 kg N/ha). The treatments were applied to samples of soil held in fifteen litre capacity plastic baskets. Effluent was applied at 7 day intervals (total 4 times) and the application was staggered with 10, 20, 30 and 40% respectively at each successive application. Green biomass yield of the water spinach was increased by biochar but not by charcoal. Theapplication of biodigester effluent increased linearly the green biomass yield of the water spinach. Soil pH and water-holding capacity was increased by biochar but was not affected by level of effluent.


Southavong S.,Champasack University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica | van Man N.,Nong Lam University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

A biotest was carried out at the research centre of Champasack University, Lao PDR to determine the effect of biochar, charcoal and biodigester effluent on growth of water spinach. The fifteen treatments in a completely randomized 3*5 factorial arrangement with 3 replications were: soil amender (biochar or charcoal or none) at 40 tonnes/ha and level of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100 kg N/ha) applied to samples of soil held in fifteen litre capacity plastic baskets. Sixty seeds of water spinach were planted in each basket. After germination, some seedlings were removed to balance the number in each basket (40 seedlings) for the rest of the experiment. The plants were irrigated every morning and evening. Measurements were made of height, number of leaves, and weight of above-ground biomass after 28 days and again (re-growth) after a further 28 days. Both soil amenders (biochar and charcoal) gave similar improvements in water holding capacity, from 27.4% to 39.0 and 37.6, respectively. Soil pH was increased from 4.7 to 6.6 due to addition of biochar and to 6.3 with charcoal. Biochar increased foliage yield of the water spinach in both the first and second harvests, but there was no apparent effect on foliage growth from application of charcoal. In the first harvest, there were curvilinear responses to biodigester effluent for biochar and charcoal amenders, with the peak occurring at between 50 and 75 kg N/ha. For the un-amended soil the response was linear with the highest yield at 100 kg N/ha. In the second harvest, the response to effluent for the biochar amender was again curvilinear with the peak at 50-75 kg N/ha; by contrast the response to effluent with the charcoal amender was linear with maximum yield requiring 100 kg N/ha. On the un-amended soil there was no relationship between effluent level and biomass yield.


Thanh V.D.,Can Tho University | van Thu N.,Can Tho University | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of Mangosteen peel and potassium nitrate or urea as non-protein nitrogen source on methane production in an in vitro incubation. The design wasa 3*4 factorial with 3 replicates. The factors were source of non protein nitrogen: urea (1.83% of substrate, DM basis) and potassium nitrate (4 or 6% of substrate, DM basis); and levels of Mangosteen peel (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of substrate DM basis). The quantity of substrate was 2.5g to which were added 200ml of buffer solution and 50ml of buffalo rumen fluid taken immediately after the animal was killed in the slaughter-house. The incubation was for 48 h with measurements of gas and methane production at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h. The proportion of substrate solubilized at 48h was determined by filtration, followed by measurement of ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the filtrate. After 48h incubation, gas and methane production, per cent substrate DM digested and methane produced per unit DM digested, were lower when potassium nitrate was the NPN source compared with urea. The 6% level of potassium nitrate was more effective in reducing methane production than the 4% level. Gas and methane production increased with time of incubation. Similar reductions in the above parameters were observed with increasing level of Mangosteen peel in the substrate. The ammonia concentration in the filtrate after 48h of incubation was lower when potassium nitrate was the NPN source compared with urea.


Kongmanila D.,National University of Colombia | Phommachanh K.,National University of Colombia | Preston T.R.,Finca Ecologica
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

Twoexperiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that a supplement of water spinach would improve the nutritive value of a low quality foliage such as that from the Mango tree. In the first experiment, coefficients of apparent digestibility were determined with six male goats with initial body weight of 13 kg and around 3.5 months of age. The animals were allocated in a double 3*3 Latin-square design to treatments of Mango foliage alone (M), Mango foliage + rumen supplement (MRS) and Mango foliage + water spinach (MWS). Each period consisted of 8 days of adaptation to the diets and 5 days of data collection. In the second experiment, fifteen male goats with initial live weight of 14 kg and around 4.5 months of age, were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five blocks and three treatments. The treatments were: Mango foliage + water spinach 0.5% of LW as DM (WS0.5), Mango foliage + water spinach at 1.0% of LW as DM (WS1.0); Mango foliage + water spinach 1.5% of LW as DM (WS1.5). Supplementation of Mango foliage with water spinach, or with a mixture of urea/minerals (rumen supplement), improved the digestibility of crude protein and N retention in growing goats, but did not appear to affectDM digestibility. Increasing the level of water spinach as a supplement to Mango foliage from 15 to 36% (DM basis) for growing goats led to a linear increase in voluntary DM intake. Growth rate was increased by 25% as the intake of water spinach increased from 14 to 28% in the diet but subsequently declined to the same degree as the level of water spinach was raised from 28 to 36% of the diet DM. The poor growth performance of goats fed high levels of dietary water spinach is attributed to the diuretic effect of this plant with consequent negative impacts on protein and energy metabolism. It is concluded that goats fed foliages of low nutritive value such as Mango will improve their growth rates if given a supplement of water spinach at a level of 20 to 25% of the diet DM.

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