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Oslo, Norway

Del Risco Kollerud R.,Agency for Health | Blaasaas K.G.,Finance Norway | Claussen B.,University of Oslo
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Aims: The association between childhood cancer and socioeconomic status is inconclusive. Family income has seldom been included in large population-based studies, and the specific contributions of it remain unknown. Methods: A total of 712,674 children born between 1967 and 2009 in the Oslo region were included. Of these, 864 were diagnosed with leukemia or cancer in the central nervous system before the age of 15 years. The association between poverty and childhood leukemia or brain cancer was analyzed using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Family income was stratified according to poverty lines. Parents educational level and several perinatal variables were also examined. Results: Family poverty during the first 2 years of life was associated with lymphoid leukemia before the age of 15 years: odds ratio 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.64. In the same age group we found a significant dose response, with a 21% increased risk of lymphoid leukemia with increasing poverty. The risk for intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors in the whole study period was lower for children in the middle family income category. For astrocytomas there was a more than 70% increased risk in the medium income category when analyzing the two first years of life. The observed increase was reduced when all years each child contributed to the study were included. The risk of cancer in the central nervous system overall was 20% higher in the medium income category compared to the high-income category. Conclusions: Being born into a household of low family income the first 2 years of life was found to be a risk factor for development of lymphoid leukemia. For astrocytomas we observed an increased risk among children born into the medium income category throughout the first two years of life. © 2015 Associations of Public Health in the Nordic Countries Regions.

Henningsen M.S.,Finance Norway | Haegeland T.,Statistics Norway | Moen J.,Norwegian School of Management
Journal of Technology Transfer | Year: 2015

Empirical examination of whether R&D subsidies crowd out private investments has been hampered by selection problems. A particular worry is that project quality and research intentions may be correlated with the likelihood of receiving subsidies. Using proposal evaluation data to control for research intentions, we do not find strong evidence suggesting that this type of selection creates a severe bias. Proposal evaluation grades strongly predict R&D investments and reduce selection bias in cross-sectional regressions, but there is limited variation in grades within firms over time. Hence, in our sample, unobserved project quality is largely absorbed by firm fixed effects. Our best estimate of the short-run additionality of R&D subsidies is 1.15, i.e., a one-unit increase in subsidy increases total R&D expenditure in the recipient firm by somewhat more than a unit. We demonstrate, however, that there is measurement error in the subsidy variable. Additionality is therefore likely to be underestimated. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Del Risco Kollerud R.,Agency for Health | Del Risco Kollerud R.,University of Oslo | Blaasaas K.G.,Finance Norway | Claussen B.,University of Oslo
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background:Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in assessing the relationship between exposure to radon at home and the risk of childhood cancer. Previous studies have produced conflicting results, probably because of limitations assessing radon exposure, too few cancer cases and poorly documented health statistics.Methods:We used a cohort approach of 0-15-year-old children to examine whether residential radon exposure was associated with childhood leukaemia and cancer in the central nervous system in the Oslo region. The study was based on Norwegian population registers and identified cancer cases from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The residence of every child was geo-coded and assigned a radon exposure.Results:In all, 712 674 children were followed from 1967 to 2009 from birth to date of cancer diagnosis, death, emigration or 15 years of age. A total of 864 cancer cases were identified, 437 children got leukaemia and 427 got cancer in the central nervous system.Conclusions or interpretation:No association was found for childhood leukaemia. An elevated nonsignificant risk for cancer in the central nervous system was observed. This association should be interpreted with caution owing to the crude exposure assessment and possibilities of confounding. © 2014 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

Kollerud R.,Agency for Health City of Oslo | Kollerud R.,University of Oslo | Blaasaas K.,Finance Norway | Ganerod G.,Geological Survey of Norway | And 3 more authors.
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014

Radon exposures were assigned to each residential address in the Oslo region using a geographic information system (GIS) that included indoor radon measurements. The results will be used in an epidemiologic study regarding leukemia and brain cancer. The model is based on 6% of measured residential buildings. High density of indoor radon measurements allowed us to develop a buffer model where indoor radon measurements found around each dwelling were used to assign a radon value for homes lacking radon measurement.

Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to study the agreement between radon values from the buffer method, from indoor radon values of measured houses, and from a regression model constructed with radiometric data (eTh, eU) and bedrock geology. We obtained good agreement for both comparisons with ICC values between 0.54 and 0.68.

GIS offers a useful variety of tools to study the indoor-radon exposure assessment. By using the buffer method it is more likely that geological conditions are similar within the buffer and this may take more into account the variation of radon over short distances. It is also probable that short-distance-scale correlation patterns express similarities in building styles and living habits. Although the method has certain limitations, we regard it as acceptable for use in epidemiological studies. © Author(s) 2014.

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