Manferdini C.,Science Laboratorio Of Immunoreumatologia E Rigenerazione Tissutale Instituto Ortopedico Rizzoli Bologna Italy |
Cavallo C.,Laboratorio RAMSES Instituto Ortopedico Rizzoli Bologna Italy |
Grigolo B.,Science Laboratorio Of Immunoreumatologia E Rigenerazione Tissutale Instituto Ortopedico Rizzoli Bologna Italy |
Fiorini M.,Fin Ceramica Faenza SpA Faenza |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2013
Osteochondral lesions require treatment to restore the biology and functionality of the joint. A novel nanostructured biomimetic gradient scaffold was developed to mimic the biochemical and biophysical properties of the different layers of native osteochondral structure. The present results show that the scaffold presents important physicochemical characteristics and can support the growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (h-MSCs), which adhere and penetrate into the cartilaginous and bony layers. H-MSCs grown in chondrogenic or osteogenic medium decreased their proliferation during days 14-52 on both scaffold layers and in medium without inducing factors used as controls. Both chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of h-MSCs occurred from day 28 and were increased on day 52, but not in the control medium. Safranin O staining and collagen type II and proteoglycans immunostaining confirmed that chondrogenic differentiation was specifically induced only in the cartilaginous layer. Conversely, von Kossa staining, osteocalcin and osteopontin immunostaining confirmed that osteogenic differentiation occurred on both layers. This study shows the specific potential of each layer of the biomimetic scaffold to induce chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation of h-MSCs. These processes depended mainly on the media used but not the biomaterial itself, suggesting that the local milieu is fundamental for guiding cell differentiation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.