Filoha Hamadryas Project

Metahāra, Ethiopia

Filoha Hamadryas Project

Metahāra, Ethiopia
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Pines M.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | Swedell L.,New York University
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2016

In many social animals, individuals derive fitness benefits from close social bonds, which are often formed among kin of the philopatric sex. Hamadryas baboons, however, exhibit a hierarchical, multilevel social system where both sexes disperse from their natal one-male-unit (OMU). Although this would seem to hinder maintenance of kin ties, both sexes appear largely philopatric at the higher order band and clan levels, possibly allowing for bonds with same sex kin by both males and females. In order to investigate the possibility of kin bonds in hamadryas baboons, we identified kin dyads in a band without known pedigree information using a large panel of genetic markers: 1 Y-linked, 4 X-linked, and 23 autosomal microsatellites and part of the mitochondrial hypervariable region I. With these data, we performed a kinship analysis while accounting for misclassification rates through simulations and determined kinship among two types of dyads: leader and follower males and female dyads within OMUs. Leader and follower males were maternal relatives more often than expected by chance, suggesting that kinship plays a role in the formation of these relationships. Moreover, maternal female relatives were found in the same OMU more often than expected by chance, indicating that females may be motivated to maintain post-dispersal contact with maternal female kin. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons can recognize maternal kin and that kin selection has contributed to shaping their complex social system. This implies that an ancestral maternal kin bias has been retained in hamadryas society. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Chowdhury S.,City University of New York | Chowdhury S.,Queens College, City University of New York | Pines M.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | Saunders J.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2015

Objectives One-male social systems are usually characterized by polygyny and reproductive exclusion by a single resident male. Sometimes, however, secondary males join these groups, and this may carry fitness costs and/or benefits to the resident male. In hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas), which live in one-male units (OMUs) with female defense polygyny within a multi-level social system, secondary "follower" males often reside in OMUs. Our aim here is to examine possible benefits of these secondary males to hamadryas resident males. Materials and Methods Using 6 years of data from 65 OMUs in a band of wild hamadryas baboons in Ethiopia, we compared demographic and reproductive parameters of OMUs with and without secondary "follower" males to assess whether their presence conferred any reproductive benefits to resident "leader" males. Results Leaders with followers had tenure lengths almost twice as long, acquired more than twice as many females, retained females longer, and had three times as many infants during their tenure compared to leaders without followers. Discussion Hamadryas follower males enabled leaders to retain females for longer periods of time - likely through unit defense, social relationships with OMU members, and/or infant protection. Hamadryas leaders appear to be able to monopolize access to females despite the presence of followers, and as such any enhanced reproduction derived from the presence of followers likely increases the fitness of the leader rather than the follower. Thus the relationship between leaders and followers in hamadryas society appears to be a mutually beneficial one and tolerance of secondary males may be an adaptive reproductive strategy characterizing hamadryas leader males. Am J Phys Anthropol 158:501-513, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Swedell L.,Queens College, City University of New York | Swedell L.,University of Cape Town | Leedom L.,University of Bridgeport | Saunders J.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | Pines M.,Filoha Hamadryas Project
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2013

Fundamental reproductive interests dictate that females generally benefit most from mate selectivity and males from mate quantity. This can create conflict between the sexes and result in sexual coercion: male use of aggression to garner mating success at a cost to females. Potential fitness costs of sexual coercion, however, can be difficult to measure. Here, we demonstrate benefits to males and costs to females of female defense polygyny in wild hamadryas baboons, cercopithecoid primates in which females are coercively transferred among social units by males, restricting both female choice and bonding among female kin. Of all coercive transfers (takeovers) of females with young infants, 67%were followed by infant mortality, which was significantly more likely to occur after takeovers than at other times. As expected, infant mortality decreased time to subsequent conception but lengthened intervals between surviving infants. Following infant survival, whether a female had experienced a takeover after the previous birth was a significant predictor of subsequent interbirth interval, with interbirth intervals of females remaining with the same male between births being significantly shorter than those of females incurring takeovers between births. Together, these results reveal that takeovers increase the chance of infant mortality while delaying subsequent conception. Maledriven female defense polygyny in this species is thus costly to females in two ways. These results demonstrate that reproductive strategies benefitting males can evolve despite substantial costs to females. These costs may be mitigated over the long term, however, by female counterstrategies and protective behavior by males. © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Stadele V.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Van Doren V.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Van Doren V.,Harvard University | Pines M.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2015

Like humans, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) are unusual among primates in having a multilevel social system and stable pair bonds, and are thus a useful model for the evolution of human sociality. While the kinship structure and sex-biased dispersal patterns that underlie human social organization have been extensively elucidated, the impact of these factors on the social system of hamadryas baboons is currently unclear. Here we use genetic analysis of individuals to elucidate the patterns of male and female dispersal across multiple levels of society in a wild population of hamadryas baboons. We characterized 244 members of five hamadryas bands at Filoha, Ethiopia by genotyping one Y-linked and 23 autosomal microsatellite loci and sequencing part of the mitochondrial hypervariable control region I. We found both male and female dispersal to be limited at the level of the band, with more movement of females than males among bands. By integrating long-term behavioral data for Band 1, we also found evidence for male and female philopatry at the clan level. We speculate that male philopatry at the clan level and female dispersal across one-male units and clans may enable both kin-based cooperation among males and the maintenance of kin bonds among females after dispersal. This would mean that, as in humans, kin bonds within both sexes are a core feature of the hamadryas social system, thus contributing to our understanding of the evolution of social organization in humans. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Pines M.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | Chowdhury S.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | Chowdhury S.,Queens College, City University of New York | Chowdhury S.,City University of New York | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015

As one means to maximize access to females, males of some species are intolerant of other males in social units, resulting in female defense polygyny, a mating system in which one male monopolizes mating access to as many females as he can for as long as possible. In such a system, the length of a male's tenure and the number of females he is able to acquire are important predictors of his reproductive success. Hamadryas baboons differ from many other taxa with female defense polygyny in that they acquire and lose females individually, thus patterns of acquisition and loss of females over time are additional factors contributing to a male's fitness. Here, we describe longitudinal patterns of female acquisition and loss over a 9-year period in a group of 250 wild hamadryas baboons. Complete tenures of leader males ranged from 310 to 2,160 days (N=13) and results from a survival analysis yielded a median tenure length of 2,160 days, or 6 years (N=49). The total number of females acquired, which increased with tenure length, ranged from 1 to 14 and averaged 3.5, and leader males acquired females both opportunistically and via challenging other males. The interval between acquisition of successive females ranged from 0 to 1,196 days with a median of 203, and males acquired all of their females less than halfway into their tenure. Females from outside of a leader male's social sphere (clan and band) were acquired relatively later in their tenure compared to females from within a male's social sphere. Leaders typically lost females gradually during the latter part of their tenure or all (or most) at once, suggesting an inverted U-shaped longitudinal arc of male competitive ability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Swedell L.,Queens College, City University of New York | Swedell L.,University of Cape Town | Saunders J.,University of Cape Town | Schreier A.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2011

Unlike most cercopithecines, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) are characterized by female-biased dispersal. To clarify this pattern within the context of their hierarchical social system (comprising one-male units, clans, bands, and troops), we report here 7 years of data on female transfers among social units in wild hamadryas baboons in Ethiopia. Female tenure in one-male units (OMUs) ranged from 1 to 2,556 days (N = 208) and survival analysis revealed a median tenure length of 1,217 days (40 months). Changes in OMU membership consisted almost exclusively of takeovers by males, not voluntary transfer. Of 130 takeovers, 67% occurred within the band and 33% across bands, and, of the 22 takeovers for which we have clan membership data, 77% occurred within, not between, clans. These results reinforce the notion that hamadryas female dispersal is not analogous to sex-biased dispersal in other taxa, because (1) at least in Ethiopian populations, females do not disperse voluntarily but are transferred, often forcibly, by males; (2) only dispersal between bands will promote gene flow, whereas females are most often rearranged within bands; (3) hamadryas females undergo social dispersal but not usually locational dispersal; and (4) while male hamadryas are far more philopatric than females, they have been observed to disperse. It thus appears that the ancestral baboon pattern of female philopatry and male dispersal has evolved into a system in which neither sex is motivated to disperse, but females are forcibly transferred by males, leading to female-mediated gene flow, and males more rarely disperse to find females. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Pines M.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | Saunders J.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | Saunders J.,University of Cape Town | Swedell L.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

The nested one-male units (OMUs) of the hamadryas baboon are part of a complex social system in which "leader" males achieve near exclusive mating access by forcibly herding females into permanent consortships. Within this multi-level social system (troops, bands, clans and OMUs) are two types of prereproductive males-the follower and solitary male-whose different trajectories converge on the leader role. Here we compare OMU formation strategies of followers, who associate with a particular OMU and may have social access to females, with those of solitary males, who move freely within the band and do not associate regularly with OMUs. Data were derived from 42 OMU formations (16 by followers and 26 by solitary males) occurring over 8 years in a hamadryas baboon band at the Filoha site in Ethiopia. "Initial units" (IUs) with sexually immature females (IU strategy) were formed by 44% of followers and 46% of solitary males. The remaining followers took over mature females when their leader was deposed (challenge strategy) or disappeared (opportunistic strategy), or via a seemingly peaceful transfer (inheritance strategy). Solitary males took over mature females from other clans and bands, but mainly from old, injured or vanished leaders within their clan (via both the challenge and opportunistic strategies). Former followers of an OMU were more successful at taking over females from those OMUs than any other category of male. Despite this advantage enjoyed by ex-follower leaders, ex-solitary leaders were equally capable of increasing their OMU size at a comparable rate in their first 2 years as a leader. These results demonstrate the potential for males to employ both multiple roles (follower vs. solitary male) and multiple routes (IU, inheritance, challenge, opportunistic) to acquire females and become a leader male in a mating system characterized by female defense polygyny in a competitive arena. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Pines M.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | Swedell L.,Filoha Hamadryas Project | Swedell L.,Queens College, City University of New York
Primates | Year: 2011

In contrast to other papionin monkeys, hamadryas baboons are characterized by female-biased dispersal. Given that hamadryas females do not disperse voluntarily, one mechanism for female transfer between bands is thought to be abductions during aggressive intergroup conflict. To date, however, no successful abductions have been witnessed. We describe three abduction events at the Filoha field site in Ethiopia, two interband and one intraband, in which the abductors successfully separated a female from her leader male for several minutes or hours. In each case, the original leader male located the abductor and retrieved the female, even if it involved entering the social sphere of another band. These observations suggest that a hamadryas leader male will risk injury and loss of additional females in his attempt to retrieve a female from an abductor unless the abductor has openly challenged the leader for possession of his female and physically defeated him. © 2011 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer.


PubMed | Filoha Hamadryas Project
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of primatology | Year: 2011

The nested one-male units (OMUs) of the hamadryas baboon are part of a complex social system in which leader males achieve near exclusive mating access by forcibly herding females into permanent consortships. Within this multi-level social system (troops, bands, clans and OMUs) are two types of prereproductive males--the follower and solitary male--whose different trajectories converge on the leader role. Here we compare OMU formation strategies of followers, who associate with a particular OMU and may have social access to females, with those of solitary males, who move freely within the band and do not associate regularly with OMUs. Data were derived from 42 OMU formations (16 by followers and 26 by solitary males) occurring over 8 years in a hamadryas baboon band at the Filoha site in Ethiopia. Initial units (IUs) with sexually immature females (IU strategy) were formed by 44% of followers and 46% of solitary males. The remaining followers took over mature females when their leader was deposed (challenge strategy) or disappeared (opportunistic strategy), or via a seemingly peaceful transfer (inheritance strategy). Solitary males took over mature females from other clans and bands, but mainly from old, injured or vanished leaders within their clan (via both the challenge and opportunistic strategies). Former followers of an OMU were more successful at taking over females from those OMUs than any other category of male. Despite this advantage enjoyed by ex-follower leaders, ex-solitary leaders were equally capable of increasing their OMU size at a comparable rate in their first 2 years as a leader. These results demonstrate the potential for males to employ both multiple roles (follower vs. solitary male) and multiple routes (IU, inheritance, challenge, opportunistic) to acquire females and become a leader male in a mating system characterized by female defense polygyny in a competitive arena.


PubMed | Filoha Hamadryas Project and Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of primatology | Year: 2016

In many social animals, individuals derive fitness benefits from close social bonds, which are often formed among kin of the philopatric sex. Hamadryas baboons, however, exhibit a hierarchical, multilevel social system where both sexes disperse from their natal one-male-unit (OMU). Although this would seem to hinder maintenance of kin ties, both sexes appear largely philopatric at the higher order band and clan levels, possibly allowing for bonds with same sex kin by both males and females. In order to investigate the possibility of kin bonds in hamadryas baboons, we identified kin dyads in a band without known pedigree information using a large panel of genetic markers: 1 Y-linked, 4 X-linked, and 23 autosomal microsatellites and part of the mitochondrial hypervariable region I. With these data, we performed a kinship analysis while accounting for misclassification rates through simulations and determined kinship among two types of dyads: leader and follower males and female dyads within OMUs. Leader and follower males were maternal relatives more often than expected by chance, suggesting that kinship plays a role in the formation of these relationships. Moreover, maternal female relatives were found in the same OMU more often than expected by chance, indicating that females may be motivated to maintain post-dispersal contact with maternal female kin. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons can recognize maternal kin and that kin selection has contributed to shaping their complex social system. This implies that an ancestral maternal kin bias has been retained in hamadryas society. Am. J. Primatol. 78:731-744, 2016. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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