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Rossignol J.,Brain Research and Integrative Neuroscience Center | Rossignol J.,Central Michigan University | Fink K.D.,Brain Research and Integrative Neuroscience Center | Fink K.D.,University of Nantes | And 13 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2015

Introduction: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat (greater than 38) on the short arm of chromosome 4, resulting in loss and dysfunction of neurons in the neostriatum and cortex, leading to cognitive decline, motor dysfunction, and death, typically occurring 15 to 20 years after the onset of motor symptoms. Although an effective treatment for HD has remained elusive, current studies using transplants of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells provides considerable promise. This study further investigates the efficacy of these transplants with a focus on comparing how passage number of these cells may affect subsequent efficacy following transplantation. Methods: In this study, mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the bone-marrow of mice (BM MSCs), were labeled with Hoechst after low (3 to 8) or high (40 to 50) numbers of passages and then transplanted intrastriatally into 5-week-old R6/2 mice, which carries the N-terminal fragment of the human HD gene (145 to 155 repeats) and rapidly develops symptoms analogous to the human form of the disease. Results: It was observed that the transplanted cells survived and the R6/2 mice displayed significant behavioral and morphological sparing compared to untreated R6/2 mice, with R6/2 mice receiving high passage BM MSCs displaying fewer deficits than those receiving low-passage BM MSCs. These beneficial effects are likely due to trophic support, as an increase in brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression was observed in the striatum following transplantation of BM MSCs. Conclusion: The results from this study demonstrate that BM MSCs hold significant therapeutic value for HD, and that the amount of time the cells are exposed to in vitro culture conditions can alter their efficacy. © 2015 Rossignol et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Shear D.A.,Emory University | Shear D.A.,Field Neurosciences Institute | Shear D.A.,Central Michigan University | Shear D.A.,U.S. Army | And 7 more authors.
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2011

Purpose: Recent work indicates that transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) can survive, migrate to the injury site, and facilitate recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study manipulated timing and location of NSC transplants following controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) in mice to determine optimal transplant conditions. Methods: In Experiment 1 (timing), NSCs (E14.5 mouse) were injected into the host striatum, ipsilateral to the injury, at 2, 7, or 14 days. In Experiment 2 (location), NSCs or vehicle were injected into the mouse striatum (7 days post-CCI) either ipsilateral or contralateral to the injury and cognitive and motor abilities were assessed from weeks 1-8 post-transplant. Histological measures of NSC survival, migration, and differentiation were taken at 6 and 8 weeks post-transplant. Results: The results demonstrate that: (1) 2-7 days post-injury is the optimal time-range for delivering NSCs; (2) time of transplantation does not affect short-term phenotypic differentiation; (3) transplant location affects survival, migration, phenotype, and functional efficacy; and (4) NSC-mediated functional recovery is not contingent upon NSC migration or phenotypic differentiation. Conclusions: These findings provide further support for the idea that mechanisms other than the replacement of damaged neurons or glia, such as NSC-induced increases in protective neurotrophic factors, may be responsible for the functional recovery observed in this model of TBI. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Wyse R.D.,Central Michigan University | Dunbar G.L.,Central Michigan University | Dunbar G.L.,Field Neurosciences Institute | Rossignol J.,Central Michigan University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating neurodegenerative disorders has received growing attention recently because these cells are readily available, easily expanded in culture, and when transplanted, survive for relatively long periods of time. Given that such transplants have been shown to be safe in a variety of applications, in addition to recent findings that MSCs have useful immunomodulatory and chemotactic properties, the use of these cells as vehicles for delivering or producing beneficial proteins for therapeutic purposes has been the focus of several labs. In our lab, the use of genetic modified MSCs to release neurotrophic factors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is of particular interest. Specifically, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been recognized as therapeutic trophic factors for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, respectively. The aim of this literature review is to provide insights into: (1) the inherent properties of MSCs as a platform for neurotrophic factor delivery; (2) the molecular tools available for genetic manipulation of MSCs; (3) the rationale for utilizing various neurotrophic factors for particular neurodegenerative diseases; and (4) the clinical challenges of utilizing genetically modified MSCs. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Matchynski J.J.,Central Michigan University | Matchynski J.J.,Rochester College | Lowrance S.A.,Central Michigan University | Pappas C.,Central Michigan University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2013

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than five million Americans and is characterized by a progressive loss of memory, loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and an increase in oxidative stress. Recent studies indicate that dietary supplements of antioxidants and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may reduce the cognitive deficits in AD patients. The current study tested a combinatorial treatment of antioxidants from tart cherry extract and essential fatty acids from Nordic fish and emu oils for reducing cognitive deficits in the mu-p75 saporin (SAP)-induced mouse model of AD. Mice were given daily gavage treatments of Cerise® Total-Body-Rhythm™ (TBR; containing tart cherry extract, Nordic fish oil, and refined emu oil) or vehicle (methylcellulose) for 2 weeks before intracerebroventricular injections of the cholinergic toxin, mu-p75 SAP, or phosphate-buffered saline. The TBR treatments continued for an additional 17 days, when the mice were tested on a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Results indicate that TBR decreased the SAP-induced cognitive deficits assessed by the object-recognition, place-recognition, and Morris-water-maze tasks. Histological examination of the brain tissue indicated that TBR protected against SAP-induced inflammatory response and loss of cholinergic neurons in the area around the medial septum. These findings indicate that TBR has the potential to serve as an adjunctive treatment which may help reduce the severity of cognitive deficits in disorders involving cholinergic deficits, such as AD. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Fink K.D.,Central Michigan University | Fink K.D.,University of Nantes | Fink K.D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rossignol J.,Central Michigan University | And 10 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction. Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat on the short arm of chromosome 4 resulting in cognitive decline, motor dysfunction, and death, typically occurring 15 to 20 years after the onset of motor symptoms. Neuropathologically, HD is characterized by a specific loss of medium spiny neurons in the caudate and the putamen, as well as subsequent neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex. The transgenic R6/2 mouse model of HD carries the N-terminal fragment of the human HD gene (145 to 155 repeats) and rapidly develops some of the behavioral characteristics that are analogous to the human form of the disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown the ability to slow the onset of behavioral and neuropathological deficits following intrastriatal transplantation in rodent models of HD. Use of MSCs derived from umbilical cord (UC) offers an attractive strategy for transplantation as these cells are isolated from a noncontroversial and inexhaustible source and can be harvested at a low cost. Because UC MSCs represent an intermediate link between adult and embryonic tissue, they may hold more pluripotent properties than adult stem cells derived from other sources. Methods. Mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from the UC of day 15 gestation pups, were transplanted intrastriatally into 5-week-old R6/2 mice at either a low-passage (3 to 8) or high-passage (40 to 50). Mice were tested behaviorally for 6 weeks using the rotarod task, the Morris water maze, and the limb-clasping response. Following behavioral testing, tissue sections were analyzed for UC MSC survival, the immune response to the transplanted cells, and neuropathological changes. Results: Following transplantation of UC MSCs, R6/2 mice did not display a reduction in motor deficits but there appeared to be transient sparing in a spatial memory task when compared to untreated R6/2 mice. However, R6/2 mice receiving either low- or high-passage UC MSCs displayed significantly less neuropathological deficits, relative to untreated R6/2 mice. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate that UC MSCs hold promise for reducing the neuropathological deficits observed in the R6/2 rodent model of HD. © 2013 Fink et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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