Field Crops Research Institute

Al Jīzah, Egypt

Field Crops Research Institute

Al Jīzah, Egypt
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Lopes M.S.,CIMMYT Int. Apdo. | Reynolds M.P.,CIMMYT Int. Apdo. | McIntyre C.L.,CSIRO | Mathews K.L.,CIMMYT Int. Apdo. | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Heat and drought adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a spring bread wheat population resulting from the Seri/Babax cross designed to minimize confounding agronomic traits have been identified previously in trials conducted in Mexico. The same population was grown across a wide range of environments where heat and drought stress are naturally experienced including environments in Mexico, West Asia, North Africa (WANA), and South Asia regions. A molecular genetic linkage map including 475 marker loci associated to 29 linkage groups was used for QTL analysis of yield, days to heading (DH) and to maturity (DM), grain number (GM2), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), canopy temperature at the vegetative and grain filling stages (CTvg and CTgf), and early ground cover. A QTL for yield on chromosome 4A was confirmed across several environments, in subsets of lines with uniform allelic expression of a major phenology QTL, but not independently from PH. With terminal stress, TKW QTL was linked or pleiotropic to DH and DM. The link between phenology and TKW suggested that early maturity would favor the post-anthesis grain growth periods resulting in increased grain size and yields under terminal stress. GM2 and TKW were partially associated with markers at different positions suggesting different genetic regulation and room for improvement of both traits. Prediction accuracy of yield was improved by 5 % when using marker scores of component traits (GM2 and DH) together with yield in multiple regression. This procedure may provide accumulation of more favorable alleles during selection. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lopes M.S.,CIMMYT | Reynolds M.P.,CIMMYT | Jalal-Kamali M.R.,Iranian Seed and Plant Improvement Institute | Moussa M.,Field Crops Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

Genetic progress in yield will increase if more traits conferring better agronomic and physiological performance are brought together in the same variety through full exploitation of genotyping and phenotyping techniques in breeding. A set of 288 spring wheat advanced lines was tested in different countries in North Africa, Western and South Asia, as well as in Mexico (total of 12 environments) to: identify high yielding germplasm adapted to the former regions; identify sources of variation for physiological traits; and test the ability of physiological traits to predict yield. A group of high yielding advanced lines has been selected in these environments, but significant genotype by environment interactions were observed and were significantly explained (21% of yield variation) by soil pH and air temperature. Associations between traits were dependent on the environment, specifically TKW was positively associated with yield in almost all environments however in Sudan, negative associations were observed. In contrast cooler CT was consistently associated with yield and the trait showed moderate heritability. Agronomic and physiological variables were able to predict 27% of yield variation across advanced lines (R 2% by ridge regression) using means of all environments and this model became more significant under stress environments (explaining around 34% of yield variation). Results suggested that if drought and heat adaptive traits are brought together in one genotype, yields can be further increased particularly in low yielding environments. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

El-Abady M.I.,Field Crops Research Institute
Research Journal of Seed Science | Year: 2015

Variation in seed size and shape along the maize cob often raises this question that which one is better in terms of seed germination and seedling establishment. The widespread belief among farmers is that large and flat seeds germinate faster and produce larger seedlings than other sizes or shapes. Thus the current study was aimed to determine the influence of maize seed size/shape, planting depth and temperature on seed emergence and seedling vigor. For this purpose, a laboratory experiment was conducted during 2012 year at Seed Technology Research Unit in Mansoura, Dakahlia Governorate, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt. The treatments comprised of six levels of seed size/shape (large round, large flat, medium round, medium flat, small round and small flat) of maize hybrid single cross 131 (SC131), three levels of planting depth (2, 4 and 6 cm) and three levels of temperature (20, 25 and 30°C). From the results, seed size/shape, planting depth and temperature showed significant effect on seed germination indexes such as seed emergence percentage, mean emergence time, shoot length, root length and seedling dry weight. For instance, germination indexed increased with increasing seed size, however; increase in planting depth significantly reduced the germination indexes. By contrast, the maximum values were obtained when seed germinate at 30°C. The interaction between seed size/shape, planting depth and temperature showed a significant effect on seed emergence percentage and seedling vigor, except for seedling dry weight. Although, the effect of seed size/shape was not significant on seed emergence percentage at a depth of 2 cm and 30°C, a significant effect was observed at the depth of 4 and 6 cm. The large seeds (whether flat or round) produced the best values through the different planting depths and temperatures. The lower in seed emergence and seedling vigor of round seed than flat one is evident in small and medium seed size, when planted at deeper depths and lower temperatures. The diversity of influences on maize seed quality between flat and round shapes is corresponding with unfavorable conditions. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.

Salem E.G.,Alexandria University | El Hissewy A.,Field Crops Research Institute | Agamy N.F.,Alexandria University | Abd El Barry D.,Field Crops Research Institute
Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the leading food crops of the world, the staple food of over half the world's population. The bran, which is an important byproduct obtained during rice milling, constitutes about 1/10 of the weight of the rice grain. Rice bran is the outer brown layer including the rice germ that is removed during the milling process of brown grain. This milling byproduct is reported to be high in natural vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin E. OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of bran and bran oil of 13 different rice varieties commonly produced in Egypt, to study the utilization of rice bran in bread production, and to assess the quality and acceptance of the rice bran edible oil produced. METHODS: Rice bran was produced from 13 Egyptian varieties of recently harvested rice as well as from paddy rice stored for 1 year. The extracted bran was immediately stabilized then subjected to chemical analysis (such as moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and ash) as well as trace and heavy metals determination (P, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg). Bread was produced by adding Giza172 rice bran at three different concentrations to wheat flour then subjected to chemical analysis, caloric content, and organoleptic examination. Bran oil was extracted from the different varieties of rice bran (recently harvested and stored) then subjected to chemical and organoleptic examinations as well as vitamin E and oryzanol determination. RESULTS: The percentage of rice bran of newly harvested Egyptian rice was 11.68% and was 10.97% in stored rice. The analysis showed mean values of 5.91 and 5.53% for moisture, 14.60 and 14.40% for crude protein, 14.83 and 15.20% for fat, 44.77 and 45.40% for carbohydrates, 6.55 and 7.06% for crude fiber, and 8.87 and 8.50% for ash for newly harvested and stored rice bran, respectively. Bread containing 15% rice bran showed the highest score percentages for organoleptic quality compared with the control (100% wheat flour). Rice bran oil showed higher scores of taste, smell, appearance, and texture than corn oil and sunflower oil. CONCLUSION: Rice bran contains high nutritional components as well as phytochemicals such as vitamin E (i.e. tocopherols and tocotrienols) and the γ-oryzanol fraction that have positive effects on human health. Storage of paddy rice before milling resulted in significant effect on all studied rice bran characters and rice bran oil characters under the present investigation except crude protein and carbohydrates characters. RECOMMENDATIONS: Substitution of wheat flour with rice bran by 15% in bread production to fortify the bread with vitamin E and to reduce the amount of imported flour is recommended. © 2014 Egyptian Public Health Association.

Metwally T.F.,Field Crops Research Institute
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2015

A 2-year field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Rice Research and Training Center (RRTC), Sakha, Kafer El-Sheikh, Egypt, during 2013 and 2014 rice growing seasons to study the impact of some organic materials combined with different levels of mineral nitrogen on Giza 179 rice cultivar. The field experiment was laidout in a split- plot design with four replications. The main plots were devoted to nitrogen levels (0, 55, 110 and 165 kg N ha-1). The sub plots were allocated to the organic materials (control, chopped rice straw, farm yard manure and rice straw compost). The studied characters were plant height at harvest, number of panicle m-2, panicle weight, number of grains panicle-1, filled grain %, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, hulling, milling, and head rice percentages. With the exception of 1000-grain weight that was negatively affected by nitrogen, all studied characters were positively and significantly affected by nitrogen, organic materials and the interaction. However, hulling % was affected significantly by only mineral fertilizer. Most of the studied characters produced the highest values when the organic materials were combined with mineral fertilizer. Adequate application of mineral nitrogen combined with farmyard manure or compost could increase soil organic matter content. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved.

Kobata T.,The University of Shimane | Miya N.,The University of Shimane | Anh N.T.,Field Crops Research Institute
Plant Production Science | Year: 2011

Our objective was to clarify whether rice cultivars with a higher grain dry-matter increase rate (GIR) under elevated temperature condition show a higher percentage of milky white rice kernels (MWK). The rate of MWK judged using a rice-quality selector signifi cantly varied with the cultivar and experimental year. The spikes of the cultivars detached 5-7 days after heading were solution-cultured with an adequate nutrient supply for one week at 25, 28 and 33°C. GIR was overall the highest at 28°C, and GIR at this temperature was considered to refl ect the potential GIR in all the grains tested. There was a close correlation between the rate of MWK and the GIR at 28°C under fi eld conditions when temperatures during the grain-fi lling period were approximately over 25°C. It was suggested that cultivars with a higher potential GIR under elevated temperature conditions have a higher risk of the formation of MWK.

Two field experiments were carried out in Sakha Experimental Station during two seasons to evaluate the efficacy of different treatments (hand combing, butralin, tribenuron-methyl, metosulam and fluazifop-p-butyl) in controlling dodder weed (Cuscuta epilinum Weihe) in Fibre flax. Moreover, the effect of these treatments on some growth characters of flax yield and its components was also determined. All tested herbicide treatments decreased the dodder infestation in flax for up to 49 days. All tested herbicide treatments increased all flax growth characters, (straw yield and seed yield). Butralin herbicide gave the best control of dodder, followed by metosulam, tribenuron-methyl and fluazifop-p-butyl. Also, the data revealed that most herbicidal treatments slightly decreased protein content of flax plants and did not adversely affect the oil content of its seeds. This study suggests that, under heavy infestation of dodder weed, the use of the tested herbicides, especially butralin, is highly recommended.

El-Abady M.I.,Field Crops Research Institute
Research Journal of Seed Science | Year: 2014

A plan for drying seed artificially is necessary, during the inadequate field drying conditions to avoid the lost of large volumes of high quality maize seed. This work aimed to examine effects of the exposure to high drying temperature at different periods on maize seed quality soon after drying, after 3 and 6 months from storage. The obtained ears of hybrid single cross 10 (Sc.10) was grown at the Agricultural Research Station Farm in Gemmiza, Garbia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2013 season. Cobs were harvested to obtain seed with moisture percentage ranges from 30-33% and exposure to different high drying temperature periods and then completed drying at 38°C until reach to 12% seed moisture content (50°C for 28 h, 50°C for 24 h+38°C for 5.50 h, 50°C for 20 h+38°C for 12.00 h, 50°C for 16 h+38°C for 17.30 h, 50°C for 12 h+38°C for 22.50 h, 50°C for 8 h+38°C for 29.00 h, 50°C for 4 h+38°C for 34.45 h and 38°C for 40.00 h). Dried seed was stored during 2013 and 2014 seasons at the laboratory natural conditions of Seed Technology Research Unit in Mansoura, Dakahlia Governorate, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt. Laboratory seed quality tests (fast green test, standard germination, abnormal seedlings, speed of germination, cold test, electrical conductivity, shoot length, root length and seedling dry weight) were conducted soon after drying, after 3 and 6 months from storage. The drying temperature can be raised to 50°C for seed harvested at a moisture range (30-33%) with maintaining adequate levels of seed and seedling vigor. The best combination treatment maintains standard germination above 90% soon after drying was drying at 50°C for 20 h before completed drying at 38°C until obtain 12% seed moisture content. But after 6 months storage, the best one was 50°C for 16 h before completed drying at 38°C which maintains standard germination above 88%. These combinations can be saving about 21 and 16.25% drying time, respectively with maintaining adequate levels of seed and seedling vigor. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc.

Mahmoud E.,Tanta University | El-Gizawy E.,Water and Environment Research Institute | Geries L.,Field Crops Research Institute
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2014

A field experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of Sakha Agricultural Research Station in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels, compost extract, and inoculation with free-living di-nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as their interaction, on soil properties, onion yield, and quality during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011(winter seasons). The results showed that the soil-available nutrients (NPK) and organic matter (OM) contents as well as total bacterial counts were increased in the plots treated with compost extract as soil application and application of nitrogen fertilizers at 214 kg N ha-1. Soil salinity and pH were decreased under soil application of compost extract as compared with the foliar applications of compost extract. Growth and onion bulbs yield and its quality were higher due to application of compost extract three times, 40, 60, and 90 days after transplanting (DAT), and two times, 40 and 60 DAT, each at the same dose compared to all other treatments. Inoculation of onion plants increased the bulb dry weight by 18.6% and 19.2% during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons, respectively, compared to uninoculated seeds. Based on the results of the current study, the combination of 214 kg ha-1 mineral N and biofertilizers could be considered as an integrated nutrient management to improve soil properties and onion yield. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Kasem Mahmoud E.,Tanta University | Mohamed Ghoneim A.,King Saud University | Mohamed Ghoneim A.,Field Crops Research Institute
Solid Earth | Year: 2016

The discharge of untreated waste water in Zefta drain and drain no. 5 is becoming a problem for many farmers in the El-Mahla El-Kobra area, Egypt. The discharged water contains high levels of contaminants considered hazardous to the ecosystem. Some plants, soil, water, and sediment samples were collected from the El-Mahla El-Kobra area to evaluate the contamination by heavy metals. The results showed that the heavy metals, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water of Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded permissible limits for irrigation. In rice and maize shoots grown in soils irrigated by contaminated water from Zefta drain and drain no. 5, the bioaccumulation factors for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mn were higher than 1.0. The heavy metals content of irrigated soils from Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded the upper limit of background heavy metals. In this study, the mean contaminant factor values of the drain no. 5 sediments revealed that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Niĝ€>ĝ€6, indicating very high contamination. The bioaccumulation coefficient values of Cynodon dactylon, Phragmites australis, and Typha domingensis aquatic plants growing in Zefta drain are high. These species can be considered as hyperaccumulators for the decontamination of contaminated water. © Author(s) 2016.

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