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El-Abady M.I.,Field Crops Research Institute
Research Journal of Seed Science

Variation in seed size and shape along the maize cob often raises this question that which one is better in terms of seed germination and seedling establishment. The widespread belief among farmers is that large and flat seeds germinate faster and produce larger seedlings than other sizes or shapes. Thus the current study was aimed to determine the influence of maize seed size/shape, planting depth and temperature on seed emergence and seedling vigor. For this purpose, a laboratory experiment was conducted during 2012 year at Seed Technology Research Unit in Mansoura, Dakahlia Governorate, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt. The treatments comprised of six levels of seed size/shape (large round, large flat, medium round, medium flat, small round and small flat) of maize hybrid single cross 131 (SC131), three levels of planting depth (2, 4 and 6 cm) and three levels of temperature (20, 25 and 30°C). From the results, seed size/shape, planting depth and temperature showed significant effect on seed germination indexes such as seed emergence percentage, mean emergence time, shoot length, root length and seedling dry weight. For instance, germination indexed increased with increasing seed size, however; increase in planting depth significantly reduced the germination indexes. By contrast, the maximum values were obtained when seed germinate at 30°C. The interaction between seed size/shape, planting depth and temperature showed a significant effect on seed emergence percentage and seedling vigor, except for seedling dry weight. Although, the effect of seed size/shape was not significant on seed emergence percentage at a depth of 2 cm and 30°C, a significant effect was observed at the depth of 4 and 6 cm. The large seeds (whether flat or round) produced the best values through the different planting depths and temperatures. The lower in seed emergence and seedling vigor of round seed than flat one is evident in small and medium seed size, when planted at deeper depths and lower temperatures. The diversity of influences on maize seed quality between flat and round shapes is corresponding with unfavorable conditions. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Kobata T.,The University of Shimane | Miya N.,The University of Shimane | Anh N.T.,Field Crops Research Institute
Plant Production Science

Our objective was to clarify whether rice cultivars with a higher grain dry-matter increase rate (GIR) under elevated temperature condition show a higher percentage of milky white rice kernels (MWK). The rate of MWK judged using a rice-quality selector signifi cantly varied with the cultivar and experimental year. The spikes of the cultivars detached 5-7 days after heading were solution-cultured with an adequate nutrient supply for one week at 25, 28 and 33°C. GIR was overall the highest at 28°C, and GIR at this temperature was considered to refl ect the potential GIR in all the grains tested. There was a close correlation between the rate of MWK and the GIR at 28°C under fi eld conditions when temperatures during the grain-fi lling period were approximately over 25°C. It was suggested that cultivars with a higher potential GIR under elevated temperature conditions have a higher risk of the formation of MWK. Source

Two field experiments were carried out in Sakha Experimental Station during two seasons to evaluate the efficacy of different treatments (hand combing, butralin, tribenuron-methyl, metosulam and fluazifop-p-butyl) in controlling dodder weed (Cuscuta epilinum Weihe) in Fibre flax. Moreover, the effect of these treatments on some growth characters of flax yield and its components was also determined. All tested herbicide treatments decreased the dodder infestation in flax for up to 49 days. All tested herbicide treatments increased all flax growth characters, (straw yield and seed yield). Butralin herbicide gave the best control of dodder, followed by metosulam, tribenuron-methyl and fluazifop-p-butyl. Also, the data revealed that most herbicidal treatments slightly decreased protein content of flax plants and did not adversely affect the oil content of its seeds. This study suggests that, under heavy infestation of dodder weed, the use of the tested herbicides, especially butralin, is highly recommended. Source

Metwally T.F.,Field Crops Research Institute
International Journal of ChemTech Research

A 2-year field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Rice Research and Training Center (RRTC), Sakha, Kafer El-Sheikh, Egypt, during 2013 and 2014 rice growing seasons to study the impact of some organic materials combined with different levels of mineral nitrogen on Giza 179 rice cultivar. The field experiment was laidout in a split- plot design with four replications. The main plots were devoted to nitrogen levels (0, 55, 110 and 165 kg N ha-1). The sub plots were allocated to the organic materials (control, chopped rice straw, farm yard manure and rice straw compost). The studied characters were plant height at harvest, number of panicle m-2, panicle weight, number of grains panicle-1, filled grain %, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, hulling, milling, and head rice percentages. With the exception of 1000-grain weight that was negatively affected by nitrogen, all studied characters were positively and significantly affected by nitrogen, organic materials and the interaction. However, hulling % was affected significantly by only mineral fertilizer. Most of the studied characters produced the highest values when the organic materials were combined with mineral fertilizer. Adequate application of mineral nitrogen combined with farmyard manure or compost could increase soil organic matter content. © 2015, Sphinx Knowledge House. All rights reserved. Source

El-Abady M.I.,Field Crops Research Institute
Research Journal of Seed Science

A plan for drying seed artificially is necessary, during the inadequate field drying conditions to avoid the lost of large volumes of high quality maize seed. This work aimed to examine effects of the exposure to high drying temperature at different periods on maize seed quality soon after drying, after 3 and 6 months from storage. The obtained ears of hybrid single cross 10 (Sc.10) was grown at the Agricultural Research Station Farm in Gemmiza, Garbia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2013 season. Cobs were harvested to obtain seed with moisture percentage ranges from 30-33% and exposure to different high drying temperature periods and then completed drying at 38°C until reach to 12% seed moisture content (50°C for 28 h, 50°C for 24 h+38°C for 5.50 h, 50°C for 20 h+38°C for 12.00 h, 50°C for 16 h+38°C for 17.30 h, 50°C for 12 h+38°C for 22.50 h, 50°C for 8 h+38°C for 29.00 h, 50°C for 4 h+38°C for 34.45 h and 38°C for 40.00 h). Dried seed was stored during 2013 and 2014 seasons at the laboratory natural conditions of Seed Technology Research Unit in Mansoura, Dakahlia Governorate, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt. Laboratory seed quality tests (fast green test, standard germination, abnormal seedlings, speed of germination, cold test, electrical conductivity, shoot length, root length and seedling dry weight) were conducted soon after drying, after 3 and 6 months from storage. The drying temperature can be raised to 50°C for seed harvested at a moisture range (30-33%) with maintaining adequate levels of seed and seedling vigor. The best combination treatment maintains standard germination above 90% soon after drying was drying at 50°C for 20 h before completed drying at 38°C until obtain 12% seed moisture content. But after 6 months storage, the best one was 50°C for 16 h before completed drying at 38°C which maintains standard germination above 88%. These combinations can be saving about 21 and 16.25% drying time, respectively with maintaining adequate levels of seed and seedling vigor. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. Source

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