Field Crop Research Institute

Ankara, Turkey

Field Crop Research Institute

Ankara, Turkey
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Shehzad T.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Shehzad T.,University of Tsukuba | Allah A.,Field Crop Research Institute | Allah A.E.N.A.,Field Crop Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

The present study was conducted at the farm of the Rice Research and Training Center, Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt, during 2000-2007 rice sowing seasons. Five rice varieties viz., Giza 171, Giza 175, Giza 176, Giza 181 and GZ 1368 were the most widely grown Japonica and Indica types in Egypt during the last period, possesses at that time many positive agronomic characteristics including wide adaptability, high yield potential, tolerance to stresses and good eating quality. But with the passage of time it has lost its vigor. In Rice Research Program, Egypt, dry seeds of the above mentioned varieties were treated with different doses of gamma rays (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 Gy) for raising M1 generation. M1 plants were established by transplanting in the year 2000 season. One hundred independent lines have been advanced to M5 generation enabling evaluation of quantitative traits by replicated trials and promising lines were selected and tested in multi-location trials as M6, M7 and M8 generations. Morphological variations at vegetative and reproductive stages including plant type and various physiological characters were observed in the five populations. The mutant lines characteristics consisted of better resistance to lodging, blast disease, high yield potential, as well as early maturity. Results from yield trials and molecular assessments indicated that the mutants differed genetically from their parents. So, these mutants could be used as a donor parents in rice breeding program and some of them can be recommended as new rice varieties suitable for rice belt in Egypt.

Maytalman D.,Istanbul University | Mert Z.,Field Crop Research Institute | Baykal A.T.,Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey | Inan C.,Istanbul University | And 2 more authors.
Plant OMICS | Year: 2013

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. To clarify the molecular details and components of the resistance response in wheat offers further possibilities to combat yellow rust. In this study, differentially regulated early response proteins in wheat leaves infected by Pst isolates were investigated by proteomic approaches. Total proteins extracts from leaves harvested at 24 hour post inoculation (hpi) were separated by two dimensional liquid chromatography system, ProteomeLab PF2D. Following PF2D analysis, six hundred and thirty-seven protein peaks were compared one by one between protein patterns obtained from pathogen- and mock-inoculated leaf tissue. Among those differentially expressed 33 proteins were identified in Pst-infected plants as compared with mock-inoculated controls by nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS. Six proteins were exhibited homology to fungal proteins. Two fungal proteins, including E3 ubiquitin protein ligase and Ubiquitin-like protein, are important members of ubiquitin-proteasome system which the importance of the its proteolytic function in regulating the virulence of pathogenic fungi has just been realized recently. Other identified 27 proteins were host proteins in response to Pst and classified in five groups based on their roles in diverse biological processes. The results indicated that identified defence related proteins such as pathogene related protein 1 and 4 (PR1, PR4), Glutathione S transferase (GST) are major component for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) which is one of the strong disease resistance form in plants and appears within several days following the initial pathogen attack.

El-Kareem T.H.A.,Field Crop Research Institute | El-Saidy A.E.A.,ARC Technology
Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

This study was designed to assess the impact of normal and water stress conditions on yield and quality of grain and seed of eight wheat genotypes and selection criteria for identifying drought tolerant in wheat bread genotypes. So, field and laboratorial experiments were conducted during 2008/10 seasons. The results indicated that water stress significantly decreased almost the studied traits. The lowest decrease of both seedling length and biological yield was produced from Sakha 93 and line 2, respectively. The genotypes 6, 7 and Sakha 93 gave the highest increase in phenols content. While, the others lines reflected the highest increase in proline content. Lines 3, 7, 6 and 2 showed highest increase in oil content. The value of Phenotypic Coefficient of Variability (PC V) was higher than Genotypic Coefficient of Variability (GCV) for growth, yield and its components characters under both conditions. Under water stress, high heritability (b.s.) produced for plant height, number of kernels/spike, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield. Also, 1000-kernel weight, number of spikes m-2 and proline accumulation had highly and significant positive correlation with grain yield. While under normal conditions, grain yield had highly significant negative and positive correlation with days to maturity and plant height, respectively. In general, the high proline and phenols accumulation and number of spikes m-2, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield were recognized as beneficial drought tolerance indicators and may be used as selection criteria in wheat breeding program. Also, planting the genotypes 1, 2, 5 and Sakha 93 may be considered the best parents for drought recovering ability and can be crossed to produce new crosses with desirable characters related to drought tolerance. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Abd El-Naby Z.M.,Field Crop Research Institute | Shafie W.W.M.,Central Laboratory of Statistical Design Research | El-Nahrawy M.A.,Field Crop Research Institute
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014

The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters, six parameters, heritability, heterosis, loss of vigros and study the role of maternal effects in berseem isolated distances. Mean analysis was used to estimate magnitude of genetic variance component, the epistatic interaction and mode of inheritance in berseem clover populations. Three crosses and their reciprocals were conducted in field and greenhouse at the Agricultural Research Station at Giza during three winter seasons. Seven generations and their reciprocals were formulated by manual hybridization and subjected to generation mean analysis, plant-1, for detecting the gene effects responsible for inheritance of the plant height, number of tillers, fresh and dry weight across parents and hybrid generations. Significant differences were computed among generations viz, P1, P2, F1, F2, F3, BC1 (P1xF1) and BC2 (P2xF1) for the most of the studied traits in the three crosses and their reciprocals. The contributions of epitasis to the additive, dominance and interaction genetic variances were specified. Duplicate epistasis (that cause lower heteroses value) was prevailing for all studied traits in the three crosses and their reciprocals. Epistasis made substantial contributions to each of these variance components. Low values of (h2n) in crosses of Miskawi male parent x Fahl female parent were observed for all traits except Giza-6 x Fahl in plant height mean (0.57). ((h2b) was highly significant for multi-cut berseem cultivars as female parent in crosses with Fahl for Hatour with respect to plant height and fresh weight (0.90 and 0.84, respectively) and for Giza-6 with respect to average number of tillers (0.84). All crosses (Miskawi as female x Fahl as male) and traits showed highly significant (HBp). Also reciprocals recorded the same performance for heterosis across all traits except for (Giza-6 and Hatour) with respect to plant height and for Giza-6 fresh weight. Total fresh and dry yield recorded highly depression of Giza as female parent x Fahl (68.98 and 69.18%, respectively), while Hatour as female parent x Fahl had the best performance without losses in vigor's (-10.34 and -9.36%), respectively. The (CVG) values were close to (CVP) values, suggested low effects of environments and high genetic expression for all studied traits. Maternal genetic effects influenced traits throughout fresh and dry yield, including high significant direct and maternal additive genetic correlations within and between traits through cross generations. The force of maternal effects in berseem cultivars sustains the harmonious structure of population gene pool within each cultivar, enabling us to reduce isolation distance of foundation and breeder seed propagation.

El-Saidy A.E.A.,Field Crop Research Institute | Abd El-Hai K.M.,Egyptian Plant Pathology Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Background and Objective: This study focuses on finding compounds that are safe to humans and environment, such as propionic and acetic acids that may provide an alternative control of seed-borne pathogens and decrease seed deterioration during storage. The objectives of this study were to reduce sunflower seed deterioration and improve the viability of sunflower seed using environmentally safe organic acids. Materials and Methods: Propionic and acetic acids were applied on sunflower seed at different concentrations under laboratory conditions during different storage periods. After 6 months storage period, the viability of sunflower seed as well as morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design and randomized complete block design for greenhouse experiment. Results: Propionic and acetic acids at different concentrations showed inhibitory effects on the presence of different fungal genera in all storage periods. Propionic acid was most effective followed by acetic acid. Increasing storage periods from 0-6 months significantly decreased germination percentage, germination energy, seedling characters, survived healthy seedlings and seed oil and protein percentages but dead and rotted seeds, as well as rotted seedlings were increased. Treating sunflower seeds with propionic acid (100%) improved germination criteria, seedling characters and seed chemical characters as well as survival seedlings and minimized the dead seeds, rotted seeds and rotted seedlings as compared with the control under all storage periods. Under greenhouse conditions, the maximum growth parameter and physiological characters (chlorophylls a, b, carotenoids and total phenols) were recorded from seed treated with 100% propionic acid after 6 months of storage. Conclusion: It may be concluded that propionic and acetic acids vapors can have considerable fungicidal activity against sunflower pathogens and improve seed viability. Therefore, it is recommended using 100% propionic acid to reduce deterioration and seed-borne pathogens of sunflower under storage conditions. © 2016 Aml E.A. El-Saidy and K.M. Abd El-Hai.

Ercan S.,Marmara University | Ertugrul F.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Aydin Y.,Marmara University | Akfirat F.S.,Gebze Institute of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2010

Expressed sequenced tags containing simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were used to identify molecular markers associated with yellow rust resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A cross between yellow rust resistant (PI178383) and susceptible (Harmankaya99) wheat genotypes was performed and respective DNA pools from the resistant and susceptible F2 seedlings were constructed. 78 EST-SSR primers were used for bulked segregant analysis and one EST-SSR marker (Pk54), identified as 200 bp fragment, was present in the resistant parent and resistant F2 hybrids but not in the susceptible ones. 108 wheat genotypes differing in yellow rust resistance were screened with Pk54 and 68 % of the wheat genotypes, known to be yellow rust resistant, had the Pk54 marker, further suggesting that the presence of this marker correlates with yellow rust resistance. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Abd Allah A.A.A.E.-N.,Field Crop Research Institute
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2010

In Egypt, water requirement for the rice crop is a problem because of the limited irrigation water available from the River Nile. To solve that problem, a breeding program for drought tolerance, starting from hybridization until yield trials experiments, was designed. Ten promising lines were derived from IET 1444/ Sakha 102, Sakha 101 / IR 65600 and Sakha 101 / Gaori populations. Attentions were paid to the traits more associated with drought tolerance among segregants. The progenies from each cross were advanced from F 2 until F 6 generation. F 7 seeds were collected and bulked to provide the seed source for yield trial experiments. The best selected lines from Fn generation were evaluated under normal and drought conditions (flush irrigation every 12 days) during 2007 and 2008 rice growing seasons. The amount of irrigation water applied was determined by using flow meter. In 2009 season, the lines were evaluated under different irrigation intervals (irrigation every 4, 8 and 12 days). Each experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. These lines were found to be tolerant to drought conditions at different growth stages, that is, seedling stage, early and late vegetative stage, panicle initiation stage and ripening stage. Water saving ranged from 50 to 55% as compared to continuous submergence, with a rice yield of 7-9 t/ha. So, by using such lines the total water requirements might be significantly reduced without significant reduction in the yield. Also, these lines could be used as donor parents at reproductive stage to solve the problem of a lack of the donor parents in breeding rice for drought tolerance. © 2010 Academic Journals.

PubMed | Field Crop Research Institute, Alexandria University and Kyushu University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Comptes rendus biologies | Year: 2016

Association mapping is becoming an important tool for identifying alleles and loci responsible for dissecting highly complex traits in barley. This study describes the population structure and marker-trait association using general linear model (GLM) analysis on a site of 60 barley genotypes, evaluated in six salinity environments. Ninety-eight SSR and SNP alleles were employed for the construction of a framework genetic map. The genetic structure analysis of the collection turned out to consist of two major sub-populations, mainly comprising hulled and naked types. LD significantly varied among the barley chromosomes, suggesting that this factor may affect the resolution of association mapping for QTL located on different chromosomes. Numerous significant marker traits were associated in different regions of the barley genome controlling salt tolerance and related traits; among them, 46 QTLs were detected on 14 associated traits over the two years, with a major QTL controlling salt tolerance on 1H, 2H, 4H and 7H, which are important factors in improving barleys salt tolerance.

Youseif S.H.,National Research Center of Egypt | El-Megeed F.H.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Khalifa M.A.,Field Crop Research Institute | Saleh S.A.,National Research Center of Egypt
Research Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2014

The symbiotic potential of twenty Egyptian strains of soybean-nodulating rhizobia related to Agrobcaterium (Rhizobium), Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) and Bradyrhizobium genera has been evaluated under greenhouse and sandy loam-field soil conditions. Greenhouse-screening results showed positive symbiotic interactions between all tested rhizobia and soybean cultivar, Giza 22. The growth parameters and N-shoot content of the inoculated soybean plants were clearly affected and appeared depending upon rhizobial strain type. Four promising rhizobial strains (Ensifer NGB-SR3, Bradyrhizobium NGB-SR4, Agrobcaterium NGB-SR7, Bradyrhizobium NGB-SR14) were tested for soybean inoculation under field conditions. During flowering stage, there was a prolific nodulation pattern with all tested inoculants resulted in nodule masses ranged from 265-361 mg plant-1, compared to the un-inoculated control (15-31 mg plant-1). At harvest, the superiority of Bradyrhizobium NGB-SR4 and Agrobcaterium NGB-SR7 over other tested rhizobia was evident regarding soybean seed yield, seed N-yield and crude protein content. We confirm the nodulating machinery stability of Agrobacterium under greenhouse and sandy loam field soil conditions and their potential use as efficient soybean inoculants along with other traditional soybean micro-symbionts; Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium genera. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc.

PubMed | Field Crop Research Institute and Kazusa DNA Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2014

To develop a high density linkage map in faba bean, a total of 1,363 FBES (Faba bean expressed sequence tag [EST]-derived simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were designed based on 5,090 non-redundant ESTs developed in this study. A total of 109 plants of a Nubaria 2 Misr 3 F2 mapping population were used for map construction. Because the parents were not pure homozygous lines, the 109 F2 plants were divided into three subpopulations according to the original F1 plants. Linkage groups (LGs) generated in each subpopulation were integrated by commonly mapped markers. The integrated Nubaria 2 Misr 3 map consisted of six LGs, representing a total length of 684.7 cM, with 552 loci. Of the mapped loci, 47% were generated from multi-loci diagnostic (MLD) markers. Alignment of homologous sequence pairs along each linkage group revealed obvious syntenic relationships between LGs in faba bean and the genomes of two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. In a polymorphic analysis with ten Egyptian faba bean varieties, 78.9% (384/487) of the FBES markers showed polymorphisms. Along with the EST-SSR markers, the dense map developed in this study is expected to accelerate marker assisted breeding in faba bean.

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