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Abd Allah A.A.A.E.-N.,Field Crop Research Institute
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research

In Egypt, water requirement for the rice crop is a problem because of the limited irrigation water available from the River Nile. To solve that problem, a breeding program for drought tolerance, starting from hybridization until yield trials experiments, was designed. Ten promising lines were derived from IET 1444/ Sakha 102, Sakha 101 / IR 65600 and Sakha 101 / Gaori populations. Attentions were paid to the traits more associated with drought tolerance among segregants. The progenies from each cross were advanced from F 2 until F 6 generation. F 7 seeds were collected and bulked to provide the seed source for yield trial experiments. The best selected lines from Fn generation were evaluated under normal and drought conditions (flush irrigation every 12 days) during 2007 and 2008 rice growing seasons. The amount of irrigation water applied was determined by using flow meter. In 2009 season, the lines were evaluated under different irrigation intervals (irrigation every 4, 8 and 12 days). Each experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. These lines were found to be tolerant to drought conditions at different growth stages, that is, seedling stage, early and late vegetative stage, panicle initiation stage and ripening stage. Water saving ranged from 50 to 55% as compared to continuous submergence, with a rice yield of 7-9 t/ha. So, by using such lines the total water requirements might be significantly reduced without significant reduction in the yield. Also, these lines could be used as donor parents at reproductive stage to solve the problem of a lack of the donor parents in breeding rice for drought tolerance. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source

Manakasem Y.,Suranaree University of Technology | Muangtip K.,Suranaree University of Technology | Sakuanrungsirikul S.,Field Crop Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae

Red Kwao Krua (Butea superba Roxb.) is a protected medicinal plant species of Thailand. In traditional medical practices of Thailand the tuberous roots of Red Kwao Krua (RKK) are used to treat various illnesses and maintain male hormones. Tuberous roots were obtained from forests in six provinces in northeast Thailand in the years 2004 to 2006. Molecular classification by the RAPD technique using 49 clones and 40 primers together with classification based on 10 botanical characteristics was performed on the samples. The RAPD technique and botanical classification showed that there were two groups (subgenera) at 32% relatedness. 1) Red Kwao Krua (Butea superba Roxb.) included 2 subgroups at 70% coefficient. Subgroup 1 was RKK from Nakhon Ratchasima and Kalasin provinces. Subgroup 2 was RKK from Nakhon Ratchasima and Sakon Nakhon provinces. 2) Tao Pun Say (Spatholobus pariviflorus (DC.) Kuntze) included 3 subgroups at 84% coefficient from Chaiyaphum, Buriram and Mahasarakham provinces. The dendrogram of botanical characteristics also showed 2 groups at 19% relatedness and were related to the classification by DNA Markers. Mistakes in harvesting traditional medicinal plants are very common: it may be necessary to regulate the traditional medicine industry using modern analytical methods to characterize the products. Source

Metwali E.M.R.,University of Jeddah | Metwali E.M.R.,Suez Canal University | Abdelmoneim T.S.,University of Jeddah | Abdelmoneim T.S.,Suez Canal University | And 2 more authors.

The effects of three bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas putida, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria were investigated to improve the growth of six cultivars from Vicia faba L. under two levels of salinity stress (S1=4000 and S2=8000 ppm). Different morphological and biochemical parameters were studies. The highest values of final germination percent were observed in cultivar Wadi 1 and Line 1 (96%) in the presence of P. fluorescens. Application of P. putida decreased the mean germination time in the presence or absent salinity stress. The salinity treatments induced a significant decreased in all of plant growth parameters, plant chlorophyll and plant soluable proteins, while plant proline was increased, comparing to control. The plants treated with P. fluorescens showed significant increase in growth traits such as plant length (10.66%), plant shoot fresh weight (9.52%) and plant leaf area (61.86%). This increasing trend was followed by application of B. subtilis then P. putida. The phylogenetic diversity relationship and the level of genetic diversity among the cultivars were assessed using 9 arbitrary primers. The results indicated that 6 out of the 9 primers [(GATA)4GC, (AGAC)4GC, GAC(GATA)4, (AC)8YC, CGC(GATA)4 and (AG)8YC] can generate clear multiplex banding profiles. Among the 48 polymorphism bands, only 14 were found to be useful as positive or negative markers related to salt stress. The cluster analysis classified the cultivars into two main groups. The inter-simple sequence repeat can be used to identify alleles associated with the salt stress in faba bean germplasm. Source

Youseif S.H.,National Research Center of Egypt | El-Megeed F.H.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Khalifa M.A.,Field Crop Research Institute | Saleh S.A.,National Research Center of Egypt
Research Journal of Microbiology

The symbiotic potential of twenty Egyptian strains of soybean-nodulating rhizobia related to Agrobcaterium (Rhizobium), Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) and Bradyrhizobium genera has been evaluated under greenhouse and sandy loam-field soil conditions. Greenhouse-screening results showed positive symbiotic interactions between all tested rhizobia and soybean cultivar, Giza 22. The growth parameters and N-shoot content of the inoculated soybean plants were clearly affected and appeared depending upon rhizobial strain type. Four promising rhizobial strains (Ensifer NGB-SR3, Bradyrhizobium NGB-SR4, Agrobcaterium NGB-SR7, Bradyrhizobium NGB-SR14) were tested for soybean inoculation under field conditions. During flowering stage, there was a prolific nodulation pattern with all tested inoculants resulted in nodule masses ranged from 265-361 mg plant-1, compared to the un-inoculated control (15-31 mg plant-1). At harvest, the superiority of Bradyrhizobium NGB-SR4 and Agrobcaterium NGB-SR7 over other tested rhizobia was evident regarding soybean seed yield, seed N-yield and crude protein content. We confirm the nodulating machinery stability of Agrobacterium under greenhouse and sandy loam field soil conditions and their potential use as efficient soybean inoculants along with other traditional soybean micro-symbionts; Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium genera. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. Source

El-Kareem T.H.A.,Field Crop Research Institute | El-Saidy A.E.A.,ARC Technology
Journal of Biological Sciences

This study was designed to assess the impact of normal and water stress conditions on yield and quality of grain and seed of eight wheat genotypes and selection criteria for identifying drought tolerant in wheat bread genotypes. So, field and laboratorial experiments were conducted during 2008/10 seasons. The results indicated that water stress significantly decreased almost the studied traits. The lowest decrease of both seedling length and biological yield was produced from Sakha 93 and line 2, respectively. The genotypes 6, 7 and Sakha 93 gave the highest increase in phenols content. While, the others lines reflected the highest increase in proline content. Lines 3, 7, 6 and 2 showed highest increase in oil content. The value of Phenotypic Coefficient of Variability (PC V) was higher than Genotypic Coefficient of Variability (GCV) for growth, yield and its components characters under both conditions. Under water stress, high heritability (b.s.) produced for plant height, number of kernels/spike, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield. Also, 1000-kernel weight, number of spikes m-2 and proline accumulation had highly and significant positive correlation with grain yield. While under normal conditions, grain yield had highly significant negative and positive correlation with days to maturity and plant height, respectively. In general, the high proline and phenols accumulation and number of spikes m-2, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield were recognized as beneficial drought tolerance indicators and may be used as selection criteria in wheat breeding program. Also, planting the genotypes 1, 2, 5 and Sakha 93 may be considered the best parents for drought recovering ability and can be crossed to produce new crosses with desirable characters related to drought tolerance. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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