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Oba M.,University of Alberta | Swift M.L.,Field Crop Development Center
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Eight lactating dairy cows were fed diets containing either Falcon or Tyto whole-plant barley silage (Hordeum vulgare; WPBS) in a crossover design to study effects on milk production and feed efficiency. The in vitro fibre digestibility (IVFD) of Falcon and Tyto WPBS was 61.6 and 57.2%, respectively. Cows consuming the Falcon WPBS utilized feed more efficiently compared with those consuming the Tyto WPBS (1.44 vs. 1.32 kg milk kg-1 dry matter intake) although milk yield was not affected. This research demonstrates that IVFD may be an important quality indicator of WPBS when balancing diets for high producing lactating cows. Source


Badea A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Eudes F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Salmon D.,Field Crop Development Center | Tuvesson S.,Svalof Weibull AB | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.) is a hybrid derived by crossing wheat (Triticum sp.) and rye (Secale sp.). Till date, only a limited number of simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers have been used in triticale molecular analyses and there is a need to identify dedicated high-throughput molecular markers to better exploit this crop. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers in triticale. DArT marker technology offers a high level of multiplexing. Development of new markers from triticale accessions was combined with mining the large collection of previously developed markers in rye and wheat. Three genotyping arrays were used to analyze a collection of 144 triticale accessions. The polymorphism level ranged from 8.6 to 23.8% for wheat and rye DArT markers, respectively. Among the polymorphic markers, rye markers were the most abundant (3,109) followed by wheat (2,214) and triticale (719). The mean polymorphism information content values were 0.34 for rye DArT markers and 0.37 for those from triticale and wheat. High correlation was observed between similarity matrices derived from rye, triticale, wheat and combined marker sets, as well as for the cophenetic values matrices. Cluster analysis revealed genetic relationships among the accessions consistent with the agronomic and pedigree information available. The newly developed triticale DArT markers as well as those originated from rye and wheat provide high quality markers that can be used for diversity analyses and might be exploited in a range of molecular breeding and genomics applications in triticale. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in Rights of Canada. Source


Reid T.A.,University of Alberta | Yang R.-C.,University of Alberta | Salmon D.F.,Field Crop Development Center | Navabi A.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Breeding spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) specifically for organic production has been suggested by producers and researchers alike. To investigate the effects of management systems on selected spring wheat breeding line performance in multi-location tests in the northern Great Plains, we used a randomly derived population of 79 F6-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between the Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar AC Barrie and the CIMMYT derived cultivar Attila. The population, including the parents, was grown on conventionally and organically managed land in 12 environments over 3 years. Direct selection in each management system (10% selection intensity based on grain yield) resulted in three lines being retained in each management system, over the multi-location testing. Gains from 10% selection for grain yield in a 'selection' year were 3.4 times greater in conventional multi-site yield trials than in organically managed trials. Two lines (BA 05 and BA 36) ranked in the top 10% of both the conventional and organic selection trial of 2005, remained ranked 2nd and 1st, respectively, under conventional management in multi-site yield trials. However, these lines ranked 53rd and 21st, respectively, for grain yield in the multi-site organic yield trials. Selected lines were each yield stable within the management system in which they were selected. Following replicated multi-location yield trials, three lines from the population (BA 02, 29 and 58) ranked within the highest 10% yielding lines in both conventional and organic systems. The results of this study suggest that selection differences occur across multi-location tests, and that selection for grain yield in organic systems should be conducted within organic systems. It is evident, however, that data obtained from conventional yield trials also has some relevance towards breeding for organic environments. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Anbessa Y.,Field Crop Development Center | Juskiw P.,Field Crop Development Center | Good A.,University of Alberta | Nyachiro J.,Field Crop Development Center | Helm J.,Field Crop Development Center
Crop Science | Year: 2010

Developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars suitable for low-N conditions is important for sustainable production. In breeding for low-N environments, it must be decided whether a separate breeding program is necessary for this environment or if it can be performed as part of a multienvironmental testing and selection strategy. The objective of this study was to determine the effi ciency of indirect selection based on performance under the traditional multiple high N environments versus direct selection under the low-N conditions. Twelve experiments, each consisting of 18 to 25 barley genotypes, were conducted in fi ve to eight environments including a low-N environment in Alberta, Canada, from 2001 to 2006. The low-N conditions used in this study simulated reduced N application as would be used to produce malting barley in western Canada, so the level of N-stress imposed would be considered moderate. Genetic correlations between mean grain yield across multiple high N environments and the yield in the low-N trial was positive and high, ranging from 0.83 to 1.00. The predicted correlated response in grain yield under low N to selection based on mean yields across multiple high-N environments relative to the predicted response to direct selection in the low-N environment ranged from 0.81 to 1.18. This implies that breeding for low-N conditions relevant to malting barley cultivation in western Canada and similar circumstances can be performed as part of the selection strategy for broad adaptation. © Crop Science Society of America. Source


Kumar K.,Field Crop Development Center | Holtz M.D.,Field Crop Development Center | Xi K.,Field Crop Development Center | Turkington T.K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

In central Alberta, stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) of wheat and barley has become more prevalent and this disease is generally more severe on winter wheat than spring wheat. This study was carried out to determine the potential role of winter wheat in overwintering and transmission of inoculum to subsequent spring crops. Field plants of winter wheat, infected in the autumn, were sampled during January to May from 2008 to 2011 in central Alberta. The pathogen's viability was established using in vivo growth parameters and pathogen detection was determined using PCR. Approximately 4-20% of urediniospores sampled from pustules on winter wheat during January to March-April of each year were viable. Latent mycelia were intermittently observed on winter wheat sampled from January to May in each of 2008 and 2010. The fungus was detected using PCR intermittently from winter to early spring. Persistent snow cover was found to be critical for the survival of overwintering inoculum, as viable pustules and urediniospores rarely survived after snow melt. There was higher stripe rust severity in spring wheat or barley seeded near winter wheat compared with the same crops seeded near spring wheat, for all years of field testing. The epidemiological significance of overwintering inoculum is discussed in relation to stripe rust management in central Alberta. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Source

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