Field Crop Development Center

Lacombe, Canada

Field Crop Development Center

Lacombe, Canada
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Warkentin T.D.,University of Saskatchewan | Delgerjav O.,University of Saskatchewan | Arganosa G.,University of Saskatchewan | Rehman A.U.,University of Saskatchewan | And 4 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2012

The majority of the total phosphorus in seeds is stored in the form of phytate, a mixed-cation salt of phytic acid. Phytate is not well digested by humans and monogastric animals. Phosphorus excretion is one of the major pollutants of surface waters in many locations in the world. Important micronutrients such as iron and zinc bound to phytate are also excreted, potentially leading to micronutrient deficiencies. Low-phytate mutants have been developed in several crop species as one strategy to deal with the phytate problem. The objective of this research was the development of low-phytate pea (Pisum sativum L.) using chemical mutagenesis of cultivar CDC Bronco, and the agronomic characterization of two resulting lines. In these lines, phytate phosphorus concentration was reduced by approximately 60%, with a compensating increase in inorganic phosphorus. The low-phytate lines were similar in agronomic performance to CDC Bronco, except for somewhat slower time to flowering and maturity, slightly lower seed weight, and slightly lower grain yield. Low-phytate field pea should have potential to improve phosphorus and micronutrient bioavailability in human and animal diets. © Crop Science Society of America.

Kumar K.,Field Crop Development Center | Holtz M.D.,Field Crop Development Center | Xi K.,Field Crop Development Center | Turkington T.K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

In central Alberta, stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) of wheat and barley has become more prevalent and this disease is generally more severe on winter wheat than spring wheat. This study was carried out to determine the potential role of winter wheat in overwintering and transmission of inoculum to subsequent spring crops. Field plants of winter wheat, infected in the autumn, were sampled during January to May from 2008 to 2011 in central Alberta. The pathogen's viability was established using in vivo growth parameters and pathogen detection was determined using PCR. Approximately 4-20% of urediniospores sampled from pustules on winter wheat during January to March-April of each year were viable. Latent mycelia were intermittently observed on winter wheat sampled from January to May in each of 2008 and 2010. The fungus was detected using PCR intermittently from winter to early spring. Persistent snow cover was found to be critical for the survival of overwintering inoculum, as viable pustules and urediniospores rarely survived after snow melt. There was higher stripe rust severity in spring wheat or barley seeded near winter wheat compared with the same crops seeded near spring wheat, for all years of field testing. The epidemiological significance of overwintering inoculum is discussed in relation to stripe rust management in central Alberta. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.

Holtz M.D.,Field Crop Development Center | Kumar K.,Field Crop Development Center | Xi K.,Field Crop Development Center
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

One hundred and four isolates of Puccinia striiformis were obtained primarily from central Alberta during 2009-2011 from wheat, barley, foxtail barley and triticale. Isolates were identified as P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) or P. striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh) based on virulence on differential seedlings. Twenty-five wheat differentials separated 67 Pst isolates into 12 pathotypes, with a single pathotype representing 48% of Pst isolates. Wheat differentials with resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 were resistant to all 12 pathotypes, while wheat lines with genes Yr1, Yr10, Yr24, Yr28, YrTyee and YrSP were resistant to 80-98% of the isolates. The remainder of the wheat differentials were susceptible to all Pst isolates. Within the 37 Psh isolates, 12 pathotypes were detected based on 12 barley differentials, half of which were previously unreported in Alberta. The two most common Psh pathotypes combined accounted for 46% of the isolates. One half of the Psh isolates may be the result of hybridization between the two formae speciales since they exhibited virulence on a large number of wheat and triticale lines in addition to barley lines. Psh isolates with these virulence factors were more frequently recovered from six-row than two-row barley. For both formae speciales, there was no apparent association between pathotype and location, with pathotypes being widespread and recovered from multiple locations. © 2013 The Canadian Phytopathological Society.

Anbessa Y.,Field Crop Development Center | Juskiw P.,Field Crop Development Center
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2012

Improvement in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is important to reduce input costs and the negative impact of excessive N on the environment. This review found that barley growers in western Canada have over the years adopted a number of improved N management strategies including soil testing and adjusting rate of N fertilization accordingly, switching from fall application to spring application of N fertilizers, and side-dressing placement of N that gives plant roots easier access to N nutrition. However, it is our opinion that use of variable N rates, choice of N fertilizer type that is less susceptible to losses, and improved manure management are some of the areas where further increase in NUE should be sought. As well, barley germplasms show supstantial differences in NUE and genetic selection could increase NUE. Genetic improvement of NUE in barley should be possible both by the traditional breeding approach of crossing and pyramiding NUE genes from across different sources as well as through the development of transgenic barley. The integration of improved N management practices and more efficient cultivars may bring about a significant increase in NUE and ultimately grain yield of barley under the target moderate rate of N application.

Badea A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Eudes F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Salmon D.,Field Crop Development Center | Tuvesson S.,Svalöf Weibull AB | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.) is a hybrid derived by crossing wheat (Triticum sp.) and rye (Secale sp.). Till date, only a limited number of simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers have been used in triticale molecular analyses and there is a need to identify dedicated high-throughput molecular markers to better exploit this crop. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers in triticale. DArT marker technology offers a high level of multiplexing. Development of new markers from triticale accessions was combined with mining the large collection of previously developed markers in rye and wheat. Three genotyping arrays were used to analyze a collection of 144 triticale accessions. The polymorphism level ranged from 8.6 to 23.8% for wheat and rye DArT markers, respectively. Among the polymorphic markers, rye markers were the most abundant (3,109) followed by wheat (2,214) and triticale (719). The mean polymorphism information content values were 0.34 for rye DArT markers and 0.37 for those from triticale and wheat. High correlation was observed between similarity matrices derived from rye, triticale, wheat and combined marker sets, as well as for the cophenetic values matrices. Cluster analysis revealed genetic relationships among the accessions consistent with the agronomic and pedigree information available. The newly developed triticale DArT markers as well as those originated from rye and wheat provide high quality markers that can be used for diversity analyses and might be exploited in a range of molecular breeding and genomics applications in triticale. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in Rights of Canada.

Kumar K.,Field Crop Development Center | Holtz M.D.,Field Crop Development Center | Xi K.,Field Crop Development Center | Turkington T.K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Sixty-one field collections of Puccinia striiformis, primarily from central Alberta during 2007-2008, were identified to be P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) or P. striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh) based on virulence on differential seedlings. Wheat differentials separated 38 Pst isolates into 13 pathotypes, with most pathotypes consisting of single isolates. Two pathotypes consisted of two isolates, and three pathotypes were represented by three, seven and 16 isolates. Wheat lines with resistance genes Yr1, Yr5, Yr15 and YrSP were resistant to all 13 pathotypes, while wheat lines with genes Yr10, Yr24 and Yr28 were resistant to 82-92% of the isolates. Differentials YrA, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr17, Yr26, Yr27, Yr31 and YrCV were susceptible to 71-100% of the isolates. Twenty-three Psh isolates were identified to 15 Psh pathotypes, with virulence on two to eight barley differentials, including Topper, Hiproly, Varunda, Abed Binder 12, Trumpf, Mazurka, Bigo, I 5 and Bancroft and avirulent on Heils Franken, Emir and Astrix. Ten pathotypes consisted of a single isolate, four pathotypes had two isolates and one pathotype consisted of five isolates. The possible origin and virulence of P. striiformis pathotypes in central Alberta is discussed in relation to using cultivar resistance for disease control. © 2012 Copyright 2012 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.

Holtz M.D.,Field Crop Development Center | Kumar K.,Field Crop Development Center | Zantinge J.L.,Field Crop Development Center | Xi K.,Field Crop Development Center
Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Stripe rust of wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici has recently become a production problem on wheat in Alberta, Canada, and stripe rust of barley caused by P. striiformis f. sp. hordei occurs regularly. A total of 261 isolates of P. striiformis were collected from wheat, barley, Hordeum jubatum and triticale plants in Alberta, Canada from 2007 to 2012, and compared to isolates from other provinces and the USA. The genetic diversity of the pathogen was assessed using 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and by examining a length polymorphism in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region. A total of 28 SSR genotypes were detected within Alberta. The 13 genotypes common on wheat (P. striiformis f. sp. tritici) were distinct from the 15 genotypes common on barley (P. striiformis f. sp. hordei). Four SSR genotypes, two within each forma specialis, represented 85% of the isolates recovered. Genotypic diversity was low, population genetic analysis indicated a clonal structure, and the genotypes were widely dispersed. In both formae speciales, the dominant genotype varied between years. The second most common P. striiformis f. sp. hordei genotype was found to be more closely related to older P. striiformis f. sp. tritici genotypes from the USA than to other P. striiformis f. sp. hordei genotypes. © 2013 British Society for Plant Pathology.

Anbessa Y.,Field Crop Development Center | Juskiw P.,Field Crop Development Center | Good A.,University of Alberta | Nyachiro J.,Field Crop Development Center | Helm J.,Field Crop Development Center
Crop Science | Year: 2010

Developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars suitable for low-N conditions is important for sustainable production. In breeding for low-N environments, it must be decided whether a separate breeding program is necessary for this environment or if it can be performed as part of a multienvironmental testing and selection strategy. The objective of this study was to determine the effi ciency of indirect selection based on performance under the traditional multiple high N environments versus direct selection under the low-N conditions. Twelve experiments, each consisting of 18 to 25 barley genotypes, were conducted in fi ve to eight environments including a low-N environment in Alberta, Canada, from 2001 to 2006. The low-N conditions used in this study simulated reduced N application as would be used to produce malting barley in western Canada, so the level of N-stress imposed would be considered moderate. Genetic correlations between mean grain yield across multiple high N environments and the yield in the low-N trial was positive and high, ranging from 0.83 to 1.00. The predicted correlated response in grain yield under low N to selection based on mean yields across multiple high-N environments relative to the predicted response to direct selection in the low-N environment ranged from 0.81 to 1.18. This implies that breeding for low-N conditions relevant to malting barley cultivation in western Canada and similar circumstances can be performed as part of the selection strategy for broad adaptation. © Crop Science Society of America.

Beatty P.H.,University of Alberta | Anbessa Y.,Field Crop Development Center | Juskiw P.,Field Crop Development Center | Carroll R.T.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2010

Background and Aims Nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) of cereals needs to be improved by nitrogen (N) management, traditional plant breeding methods and/or biotechnology, while maintaining or, optimally, increasing crop yields. The aims of this study were to compare spring-barley genotypes grown on different nitrogen levels in field and growth-chamber conditions to determine the effects on N uptake (NUpE) and N utilization efficiency (NUtE) and ultimately, NUE. Methods Morphological characteristics, seed yield and metabolite levels of 12 spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes were compared when grown at high and low nitrogen levels in field conditions during the 2007 and 2008 Canadian growing seasons, and in potted and hydroponic growth-chamber conditions. Genotypic NUpE, NUtE and NUE were calculated and compared between field and growth-chamber environments. Key Results Growth chamber and field tests generally showed consistent NUE characteristics. In the field, Vivar, Excel and Ponoka, showed high NUE phenotypes across years and N levels. Vivar also had high NUE in growth-chamber trials, showing NUE across complex to simplistic growth environments. With the high NUE genotypes grown at low N in the field, NUtE predominates over NUpE. N metabolism-associated amino acid levels were different between roots (elevated glutamine) and shoots (elevated glutamate and alanine) of hydroponically grown genotypes. In field trials, metabolite levels were different between Kasota grown at high N (elevated glutamine) and Kasota at low N plus Vivar at either N condition. Conclusions Determining which trait(s) or gene(s) to target to improve barley NUE is important and can be facilitated using simplified growth approaches to help determine the NUE phenotype of various genotypes. The genotypes studied showed similar growth and NUE characteristics across field and growth-chamber tests demonstrating that simplified, low-variable growth environments can help pinpoint genetic targets for improving spring barley NUE. © The Author 2009.

Holtz M.D.,University of Alberta | Chang K.F.,Field Crop Development Center | Hwang S.F.,Crop Diversification Center North | Gossen B.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Strelkov S.E.,University of Alberta
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Root rot, caused by Fusarium avenaceum (teleomorph: Gibberella avenacea), is an important disease of lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and other crops in western Canada. Fusarium isolates collected from infected roots of lupin in central Alberta were characterized using two RAPD primers, three microsatellite-primed PCR markers, diagnostic primers for putative mating type, sequence comparison of the translation elongation factor 1 (EF1) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and assessments of aggressiveness on lupin seedlings. The teleomorph phase of F. avenaceum has been reported only twice in the world, but both mating types were found throughout the province. Isolates of mating type 2 were slightly more aggressive than mating type 1 on five lupin cultivars. All 42 isolates of F. avenaceum assessed in this study had a unique multilocus genotype, which indicates a high level of genotypic diversity in the pathogen population. Cluster analysis did not reveal an association between the geographic location of the isolates and genetic relatedness based on genetic markers. Instead, the F. avenaceum isolates divided into two distinct groups, with isolates from both groups occurring together at many sites. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed high diversity and the presence of some European-like isolates within the Canadian pathogen population. The high genotypic diversity of isolates and the presence of both mating types across sites provide an indication that sexual reproduction may occur within populations of F. avenaceum in Alberta. © 2011 The Canadian Phytopathological Society.

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