Ludwig H.,FICHTNER GmbH and Co. KG
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2010
Seawater desalination with reverse osmosis has taken a noteworthy upturn in recent years. One of the reasons for the success of the membrane process is its lower energy consumption in comparison to the thermal desalination processes. Due to advances in the efficiency of energy recovery systems of the seawater desalination stage (1st Pass) of SWRO - plants in the last decade this advantage of membrane processes has even increased. Now, however, the energy consumption of an SWRO is also influenced by a huge number of additional factors. These are of an external nature as well as determined by design and configuration of the plant. Environmental conditions and - stipulations dependent on the location of the plant and furthermore the influence of operating modes are additional factors. The individual systems of an SWRO plant - in particular its pre-treatment stage as well as its first and second passes are very closely cross-linked systems in regard to its energy consumption. During energy optimisation in design and operation of an SWRO besides the choice of the manner of the energy recovery in the 1st pass special attention must also be directed to the pre-treatment process and the interaction of these systems. Ways to optimize design and operation of a seawater reverse osmosis plant under the aspect of lowering its energy consumption are investigated. After listing the basic design parameters for SWRO engineering, additional system design features and configuration aspects for of pre-treatment and RO systems influencing its energy consumption are identified and their degree of influence discussed. With a technical design framework optimized for low energy consumption an exemplary SWRO system of commercially size is developed. This plant is investigated concerning the range of its specific energy consumption at different seawater feed conditions. Then additional options for energy saving during operation of the SWRO are examined. Finally it is shown, what cost saving potential is generated by a certain range of energy saving margins under plant lifecycle aspects. For plant design and determination of the specific energy consumption of the SWRO, an SWRO plant calculation and design model was used, which covers different pre-treatment and RO configurations and the design and energy consumption of the SWRO plant systems including potabilisation and subsystems like additional wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering facilities of an SWRO. A characteristic SWRO plant size (20,000 m3/d net output capacity) and configuration (two pass RO system) was selected for modelling purposes. © 2010 Desalination Publications.
Pohler T.,Malchingerstrasse 7 |
Schafer P.,FICHTNER GmbH and Co. KG
WasserWirtschaft | Year: 2014
An extensively automated method was developed to identify locations for pumped storage power plants and evaluate their technical features and investment costs. Based on the analyses in a Geographical Information System (GIS) the procedure allows efficiently identifying and comparing projects in a large area. Within the study the method was successfully applied on Norway.
Klumpp F.,FICHTNER GmbH and Co. KG
Energy Procedia | Year: 2015
This paper presents results of a research project which analyzes large scale energy storage technologies in regard to their potential and the cost of storing energy. Principal findings: There is plenty of technical potential for all analyzed storage technologies in Lower Saxony, a federal state in Northern Germany. In regard to Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC), today pumped storage plants outperform the other technologies analyzed if designed as short or medium storage. Compared to today's available alternatives, hydrogen storages are already competitive as long term storage. For 2030, hydrogen storage technologies significantly reduce their LEC. However, the ranking doesn't shift fundamentally. © 2015 The Authors.
Fey B.,FICHTNER GmbH and Co. KG
ATW - Internationale Zeitschrift fur Kernenergie | Year: 2011
The radiotoxic hazard of waste from fusion power plants has been compared with that of fission power and radioactive trace elements in coal ash within some research programs such as SEAFP and SEIF. Within another program, in 2005 a Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been finalized investigating 4 fusion power plant models A to D. In this paper, the radiotoxicity of model B is compared with a fission power plant, concentrating on the production of wastes. The hazard of the respective masses of enriched uranium before use in a fission power plant and coal ash of a power plant generating the same amount of electricity are used as benchmarks. It is evident that the development of ingestion and inhalation hazard of the PPCS model B is different from the results of earlier studies because of different assumptions on material impurities and other constraints. An important aspect is the presence of actinides in fusion power plant waste.
Anderer P.,Ingenieurburo Floecksmuhle |
Dumont U.,Ingenieurburo Floecksmuhle |
Heimerl S.,FICHTNER GmbH and Co. KG |
Ruprecht A.,University of Stuttgart |
Wolf-Schumann U.,Hydrotec Ingenieurgesellschaft fur Wasser und Umwelt mbH
WasserWirtschaft | Year: 2010
Germany has set a goal for the year 2030 to cover 45 % of its electric power consumption through renewable energies. Currently about 14% of electricity are provided by renewable energy sources, 25 % of which come from hydro power. As a basis for a German development strategy, the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) has commissioned further research to determine the additionally usable potential of hydropower throughout Germany, using the consistent method of line potential calculation.