Banting, Malaysia
Banting, Malaysia

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Hoong Y.B.,Fibre and Biocomposite Center | Hoong Y.B.,University Putra Malaysia | Pizzi A.,University of Lorraine | Chuah L.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Harun J.,Fibre and Biocomposite Center
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2015

This study evaluated a new method of producing phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) adhesives formulated differently under actual "in-situ" resin synthesis conditions. This was carried out by co-polymerizing urea formaldehyde (UF) resin with phenol-formaldehyde resin in the core layer of low molecular weight (LMW) phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin treated Elaeis palm trunk veneers during the gluing process of Elaeis palm plywood. Matrix assisted laser desorption Ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) illustrated and confirmed a series number of the phenol-urea co-condensates repeating unit in the prepared PUF resins which corroborated well with its mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture), bonding quality (dry test and weather boil proof or WBP test) and physical properties. A series of PF, UF and PUF resins oligomers forming repeating units up to 1833 Da were identified. Besides that, the solid state 13Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) interpretation identified that the signal at 44-45 ppm and 54-55 ppm corresponding to methylene bridges were co-condensated in between phenol and urea in the PUF resin system. The 13C NMR investigation showed that the synthesis process of PUF resin contained no free formaldehyde elements. Furthermore, the proportion of urea and methylolureas in the mixture to synthesis PUF resin were sufficient and incorporated well into the formulation by reacting with LMWPF units to form co-condensed methylene bridges. This study showed a new and useful method to synthesize PUF resin during the gluing process of manufactured Elaeis palm plywood which can also enhance the performance of Elaeis palm plywood panels for structural instead of utility grade applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hoong Y.B.,Fibre and Biocomposite Center | Paridah M.T.,University Putra Malaysia
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

The main objective in this study were to investigate the physical properties, mechanical properties and bonding qualities of oil palm stem (OPS) plywood pre-preg using low molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde (LmwPF). The properties evaluated were physical properties (resin uptake, weight percent gain), mechanical properties (bending strength) and bonding qualities (dry test, WPB test). The results showed that, the physical properties of OPS plywood were significant at resin concentration and veneer moisture content. Moreover, the mechanical properties and bonding performance of the pre-preg OPS plywood were influenced by the pressing time. The high grade OPS plywood with improved at least 227% MOR and 348% MOE compared to commercial OPS plywood, with greater in MOR (31%) and MOE (12%) higher compared than the commercial tropical mix light hardwood (MLHW) plywood. All the shear strength of pre-preg OPS plywood panel were achieved with their minimum requirements and satisfied all the specific testing based on the standard European Norms EN 314-1 and EN 314-2 for the interior and exterior application purposes. The output of this pilot scale study proved that high performance OPS plywood could produced through pre-preg enhancement method in the current plywood mills in which provides broader area of applications compared with conventional OPS plywood. For instant, the pre-preg OPS plywood which is suitable for structural application, concrete formwork, heavy duty interior structuring board, load bearing plywood, marine grade plywood, was obtained, thus consequently increases the price of OPS plywood panels. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hoong Y.B.,Fibre and Biocomposite Center | Hoong Y.B.,University Putra Malaysia | Loh Y.F.,Fibre and Biocomposite Center | Chuah L.A.,University Putra Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

The main objectives of this research were to investigate the formaldehyde emission, some mechanical properties and bonding quality of oil palm trunk (OPT) plywood treated with low molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde (LmwPF), as affected by resin concentration. The mechanical properties are affected by different of amount resin solid contents used. The OPT veneer were treated at either 40%, 32%, 23% or 15% of resin concentration and 12mm thickness of 3-ply plywood panel were manufactured for each group. In this study the formaldehyde emission, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and bonding quality (shear strength) of OPT plywood were determined. The results revealed that the resin-treatment method was tend to significantly improved the mechanical properties of the OPT plywood panel in which increased solid absorption gives bettermechanical properties. Apparently, high mechanical properties were obtained for panel manufacturer from veneer treated with 32% and 40% resin content. The resin-treated OPT plywood provided superior mechanical strength with improvements at least 202% MOE and 159% MOR compared to commercial OPT plywood. Whereas, mechanical properties of the resin-treated OPT plywood were drastically decrease with increasing the water substitution. Formaldehyde emission content of OPT panels decreased upon reduction of resin content into treatment process and were significant at resin concentration. The resin-treated OPT panels at 32% solid content provided a reasonable amount of free formaldehyde (0.359mg/L) which attained F**** according to Japanese Agriculture Standard (JAS). The shear strength of resin-treated OPT plywood panel with 32% and 40% resin content achieved minimum requirements according to the standard European Norms EN 314-1 and EN 314-2 for the interior and exterior application. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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