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Turin, Italy

Fiat S.p.A. , , is an Italian automobile manufacturer based in Turin. Fiat was founded in 1899 by a group of investors including Giovanni Agnelli. During its more than a century long history, Fiat has also manufactured railway engines and carriages, military vehicles, and aircraft. As of 2009, the Fiat group was the world's ninth largest carmaker and the largest in Italy. Wikipedia.

A motor-vehicle multi-link suspension system includes, for each wheel, two lower transverse arms and a substantially longitudinal or inclined lower arm, each having one end pivotally connected to a respective wheel support and the opposite end pivotally connected to the motor-vehicle structure. A leaf spring is arranged transversally with respect to the longitudinal direction of the motor-vehicle. The leaf spring is supported by elastic supports arranged symmetrically at intermediate positions between the center of the leaf spring and the ends thereof. Ends of the leaf spring are pivotally connected to upper parts of the two wheel supports. Two jack-type shock absorbers have opposite ends swingably connected to the respective wheel support and the motor-vehicle structure. The end portions of the leaf spring also fulfill the function of triangular upper transverse arms of the multi-link suspension. Preferably the leaf spring is made of a composite material.

A diesel engine system comprises a particulate filter interposed in an exhaust line and a plurality of fuel injectors associated with an engine. When a quantity of particulate accumulated within said filter is estimated to be greater than a threshold, a control mode of the injectors is activated which causing an automatic regeneration of the filter, by increasing a temperature of exhaust gases fed to the filter sufficient for burning the particulate within the filter. A statistical model is applied which estimates the quantity of particulate accumulated in the filter per time unit The estimation of the particulate accumulated in the filter is corrected after each regeneration of the filter, on a basis of a comparison between the real variation of said temperature during the regeneration as detected by a sensor and a stored reference variation of said temperature previously detected empirically during a regeneration with the filter being empty.

A motor vehicle has two upper struts, which project forward from a passenger compartment and are arranged above two lower struts, which extend along respective substantially rectilinear axes inclined from the bottom upwards, going forward; the lower struts have respective intermediate portions with such a variation in cross section to define a preferential bending zone; the rear ends of the lower struts are fixed to a cross member connected to the upper struts by means of two connection members, which are substantially vertical and have respective breakable zones designed so as to break when a given load threshold is exceeded; the motor vehicle also has a powertrain connected to the cross member and to the upper struts by means of supports which are distinct from the connection members and are breakable in the event of a front crash.

A motor-vehicle front structure includes a pair of longitudinal struts having front-ends to which two strut plates are secured. A front cross-member is located forwardly of the strut plates and has ends with two rearwardly facing crash-box plates connected to the front cross-member by two crash-box structures. The crash-box plates are connected to a lower auxiliary cross-member by two respective supports. A front-end unit for supporting one or more auxiliary motor-vehicle components has an upper cross-member and a lower cross-member. The crash-box plates are connected directly to the strut plates. The upper and lower cross-members of the front-end unit are made of elements which are separated from each other. The upper cross-member is connected directly to the crash-box plates, whereas the lower cross-member is connected directly to the supports, through which it is connected to the crash-box plates.

An engine includes a crankcase; an oil sump; at least one balancing shaft mounted in a balancing tunnel of the crankcase, which includes first and second end portions and a central portion extending between the end portions; and a blow-by gas recirculation system having an inlet channel communicating with the oil sump, an outlet channel communicating with an intake manifold, a centrifugal separator arranged between said inlet and outlet channels, and a drainage channel opening into the oil sump for discharging separated liquid. The inlet channel communicates with said first end portion, and said centrifugal separator is housed in said second end portion and is driven in rotation by said balancing shaft. The outlet channel communicates with a gas outlet of said centrifugal separator, whereby, during operation, blow-by gas flows successively through the central portion and the centrifugal separator in a path from the inlet to the outlet channel. ea

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